Eric Richards

9 West Cork and North Tipperary The Irish exemplar In the early Victorian years there were times when the flow of emigrants from the British Isles was entirely inadequate to the needs of Britain’s expanding colonial world. In 1840 T.F. Elliot, who was orchestrating a new system of assisted emigration, told James Stephen in the Colonial Office that the only people willing to emigrate were unskilled labourers from Scotland and Ireland and that ‘it is upon these two kingdoms only that the colony can rely for any constant supply of agricultural labour’.1 In reality

in The genesis of international mass migration
The British case, 1750–1900
Author: Eric Richards

Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.

Open Access (free)
Writing home in recent Irish memoirs and autobiographies (John McGahern’s Memoir, Hugo Hamilton’s The Speckled People, Seamus Deane’s Reading in the Dark and John Walsh’s The Falling Angels)
Stephen Regan

long shadow. Hugo Hamilton, in The Speckled People (2003), recalls his father explaining the events that took place in west Cork in the 1920s: He tells us about the time when the British soldiers came to their house in Leap, threatening to burn it down because they thought the rebels were shooting from the upstairs window . . . And then the very same thing happened again after the British had gone and the Irish started fighting among themselves, because that’s what they had learned from the British. Then one day they had to leave the house a second time when Irish

in Irish literature since 1990
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On the rocks road
Andrew McNeillie

 thorn, Atlantic gale and storm Limestone, stone by stone Advancing to delay To the last angle and oval With makeshift-erratic Punctuation of granite Relief work in stark relief – As now at home recalling I step up from Cill Rónáin Over the top and down To Gort na gCapall (a.k.a. West Cork) The field of the horse On my solitary walk Unpicking as I go The old formula: Distance over speed and time – Beyond recognition In my mind-body economy Of presences and memory In and out of step Balancing line on line Not carelessly picked Or casually piled But as those men worked With steady

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
Frederick Potter and the Skibbereen Eagle
Matthew Potter

with – his activities in the print media.3 Skibbereen in west Cork The nineteenth century was characterised by the twin phenomena of Ireland’s absorption into the United Kingdom and the development of an Irish nation in the modern sense of the word, particularly after 1850.4 In contrast to the Famine decade of the 1840s, Ireland enjoyed a period of economic Rafter, Irish journalism before independence.indd 49 28/07/2011 11:23:40 50 Irish journalism before independence prosperity in the succeeding quarter century (1850–75). Cities and towns saw the rise to

in Irish journalism before independence
Abstract only
Ian Miller

was not uncommon in the 1920s for the Famine to be invoked in discussion of starvation and under-nutrition, what differentiated the situation now was that political figures in Ireland had no-one but themselves to blame for the failings of a new Irish state, being no longer able to persuasively implicate ineffectual British policy. Politician Timothy Joseph O’Donovan eagerly invoked the memory of ‘Black ’47’ when detailing an account of a family in his West Cork constituency discovered in 1927 by a neighbour with the mother dead, and the father and five children in

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Brian Hanley

Methodist Church in Dublin’s Blackrock were smashed.58 A protest meeting in Navan heard that a Protestant farmer living near Mountnugent had been burnt out, ‘The other minority’ and there were reports of damage to Protestant property in Co. Longford, Arklow and Sligo.59 In west Cork, there were widespread reports that Protestant families had been threatened, with Anglican clergymen confirming that such rumours were ‘definitely circulating in their communities’. Some form of intimidation was reported from Kinsale, Bandon, Ballydehob, Schull, Skibbereen, Roscarberry

in The impact of the Troubles on the Republic of Ireland, 1968–79
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John Kinsella

the 1970s) on Mount Gabriel, highest point on the Mizen, cast a shadow over the area. We are 5 km away from them here. They infiltrate one’s nights and days. And now toxic slurry is being spread across the fields, flooding the house to conjoin with the oil fumes, penetrating every cell of this house, even saturating the linen. We feel invaded. Pastoral pointillism. Raddled sheep near pass. Irish verse form: 4 × 7 syllables. A poem of mine in this register: Graphology Peninsulas 1 (West Cork): Irish verse forms The signal towers shone bright Then fog extinguished

in Polysituatedness
John Privilege

proved to be one of the bloodiest and destructive months of the war to date. A week after the killings in Dublin an Auxiliary patrol was ambushed by the IRA’s West Cork Brigade at Kilmichael. The flying column, led by Tom Barry, killed 16 policemen. Townshend has stated that all of West Cork trembled in anticipation of the reprisals which would follow. It was the Government, however, which provided the response with the introduction of martial law.64 Whatever discipline existed within the army did not extend to the police. Following an attack outside Victoria Barracks

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Abstract only
Eric Richards

world of emigration were equally abrupt. Uniquely in the European experience, Ireland lost half of its mid-century population levels. Of all countries and all emigration, the career of the Irish needs special focus and indeed explanation. Why did Ireland have such massive recourse to emigration in the nineteenth century? As always, there were long lines of origins. Population growth, famine and emigration in the Irish case (and, as we have seen, specifically in West Cork and Tipperary) are commonly regarded as tied together inextricably. They marched in lock

in The genesis of international mass migration