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International norms and domestic policy change
Author: Kelly Kollman

On 1 October 1989, eleven gay male couples gathered in the registry office of Copenhagen's city chambers to take part in a civil ceremony, entering into a newly established entity called a registered partnership (RP). This book examines same-sex unions (SSU) policy developments western democracies and explains why the overwhelming majority of these countries has implemented a national law to recognise gay and lesbian couples. It presents an overview of recent developments in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) politics as well as the academic literatures that seek to interpret and analyse these developments. The study discussed adds to constructivist work on the international human rights regime, which has been a prominent focus of the literature. The book also examines the processes of international policy diffusion. It traces the development of a soft-law norm for relationship recognition within the broader European polity and illustrates how dissemination of this norm taken by transnational LGBT rights activists and supportive policy elites. The book presents in-depth case studies of Germany, the Netherlands, Canada and the US to tease out the extent and causal mechanisms by which the SSU norm has influenced policy debates. It looks at the ways in which the SSU norm has shaped policy discourse about relationship recognition. The book examines why countries with broadly similar parliamentary structures, party systems, levels of religiosity and confessional heritages have adopted different models of SSU policies. Finally, it inspects how much the European SSU norm has affected policy debates in Canada and the US.

Kelly Kollman

Kollman 02_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:15 Page 23 2 Sexual citizenship, LGBT movements and the relationship recognition debate in western democracies Since the late 1980s state recognition of same-sex couples, and more recently the opening of marriage, have become the central focus of LGBT rights movements in almost all western societies. Although the idea is not entirely new, this focus on relationship recognition does represent a significant change in the prioritisation of movement goals from the 1970s and 1980s. This shift has occurred despite the fact that in

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Kelly Kollman

Kollman 01_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:14 Page 1 1 Introduction: the same-sex unions revolution in western democracies On 1 October 1989 eleven gay male couples gathered in the registry office of Copenhagen’s city chambers to do what no other same-sex couples in modern history had done, namely take part in a civil ceremony to have their relationships recognised by a state. The civil institution these couples were entering was not officially marriage, but rather a newly established entity called a registered partnership (RP). The ceremony the state had created in

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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The globalisation of an idea
Kelly Kollman

Kollman 04_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:41 Page 65 4 Same-sex unions: the globalisation of an idea 1 This chapter examines same-sex unions policy developments in eighteen western democracies and utilises this broad-based analysis to address the study’s three over-arching empirical questions: (1) How can we explain the wave of SSU policy adoption that has occurred across western democracies since 1989? (2) Why have a minority of western democracies failed to adopt such laws or been laggards in doing so? (3) Why have adopter countries implemented different models of

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Socialisation and the domestic reception of international norms
Kelly Kollman

models influence domestic outcomes. In this chapter I draw on this literature to develop a theoretical framework to explain how processes of international learning and norm diffusion have catalysed SSU policy adoption in many western democracies as well as why the influence of these processes has varied across countries. As the word synergy implies, IR scholars also have a great deal to learn from LGBT politics and SSU policy. Given the field’s recent interest in both international policy diffusion and the international human rights regime, it is somewhat surprising

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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The same-sex unions revolution, its past and future
Kelly Kollman

LGBT rights expansion in the Rainbow Nation (Croucher, 2011: 160). In contrast, references to international learning and the power of foreign examples have remained rare in the literature on LGBT rights politics in the more established western democracies. As this monograph has demonstrated, however, the international community’s influence on debates about LGBT rights and the legal recognition of same-sex couples in particular did not begin in the 2000s and has not been limited to the more recently established democracies that lie outside of Western Europe and North

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
International socialisation across the pond?
Kelly Kollman

in which international influences have shaped these movements or their campaigns for policy change. Yet international norm cascades, especially those that involve high-profile human rights issues, rarely remain strictly regional in nature and western democracies have been particularly receptive to sharing policy ideas. Thus while it is unlikely that the SSU norm has had the same impact on the two North American countries that it has had in Western Europe, there is also good reason to suspect that the relationship recognition debates that have been conducted in the

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Common norms, diverse policy models
Kelly Kollman

Kollman 05_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:44 Page 103 5 Same-sex unions in the Netherlands and Germany: common norms, diverse policy models 1 Having examined the effects that the creation and dissemination of a rights-based European norm for same-sex relationship recognition has had on general SSU policy outcomes in western democracies in the last chapter, this chapter turns its attention to fleshing out the precise mechanisms by which the norm is translated into often variable domestic policy models. The chapter uses an in-depth comparative case study of SSU policy

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Has illiberalism brought the West to the brink of collapse?
Series: Pocket Politics

The West of which we speak is defined by the values of liberal democracy, individual freedom, human rights, tolerance and equality under the rule of law. This book explores how Islamist terror and Russian aggression as companion threats to the West when terrorists target Russia as well as the United States and its allies. The threats posed by Islamist terror and Russian aggression present themselves in very different ways. In the time of transatlantic traumas, the Islamist terrorist threat and the Russian threat have worked diligently and with some success. The book examines the hatred of Islamists towards Western democracies, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union for their involvement in the Middle East politics for several decades. There is no single explanation for the rising popularity of illiberalism in the Western democracies; a combination of factors has produced a general sense of malaise. The book discusses the sources of discontent prevailing in the Western countries, and looks at the rise of Trumpism, Turkey and its Western values as well as the domestic tensions between Turkey's political parties. It suggests a radical centrist populist Western strategy could be applied to deal with the threats and challenges, reinvigorating the Western system. The book also touches upon suggestions relating to illiberalism in Europe, Turkey's drift away from the West, and the Brexit referendum.

A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.