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Paul de Rapin de Thoyras’s Histoire
Ben Dew

102 COMMERCE, FINANCE AND STATECRAFT 5 Whig history: Paul de Rapin de Thoyras’s Histoire The latter years of the seventeenth century saw a series of calls for a complete account of England’s history from the Roman invasion to the present, which would be able to rival both in quality and scale the work of Livy.1 Initial attempts at such an endeavour were made by, among others, John Milton, William Temple and Jonathan Swift, while more substantial accounts emerged from Robert Brady and James Tyrrell, both of whom reached Richard II.2 A success, of sorts, was

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
The life of Bishop Francis Hutchinson, 1660–1739
Author: Andrew Sneddon

Historians who have written about Francis Hutchinson have tended to study a small part of his life and his literary output as part of larger studies on other subjects. Bishop Hutchinson is thus many things to many historians. To some he represents the archetypal eighteenth-century Protestant bibliophile, to others the type of clerical, social and economic improver and antiquarian that flourished in Ireland in the early eighteenth century. Despite this interest in his life in Ireland, most academics have been drawn to his life and work on account of his seminal, sceptical witchcraft tract, the Historical essay, published in London in 1718. Their interpretations of why Hutchinson rejected traditional witchcraft beliefs in this book reflect the changing face of the historiography of decline in educated belief in witchcraft. The book suggests that Hutchinson dedicated his life firstly to protecting the position of the established Church within society, and secondly to forging and maintaining the political hegemony of the Whig and Hanoverian regime, first in England and then in Ireland. It is suggested that the way he defended these ideals and institutions was in the manner of a moderate, principled, career-minded, Latitudinarian-Whig reformer. Furthermore, it was this outlook that fuelled his third main concern in life, the social and economic improvement of Ireland.

Daniel Szechi

In many respects the dynamics of Jacobite resistance remained the same after the Hanoverian succession as they had been before it. They still had two basic options in terms of overthrowing the Guelf regime: military action and subversion. What changed with the arrival of the Guelfs and the Whig regime that came in with them was that subversion became clearly, and by far, the least promising of the two pathways to a Stuart restoration. In previous reigns it was possible to imagine a political revolution such as a Parliament defying King William and

in The Jacobites (second edition)
D.G. Paz

This article addresses three topics. It describes Chartisms creation of a ‘peoples history’ as an alternative to middle-class history, whether Whig or Tory. It locates the sources, most of which have not been noticed before, for the Chartist narrative of the English Reformation. William Cobbetts reinterpretation of the English Reformation is well known as a source for the working-class narrative; William Howitts much less familiar but more important source, antedating Cobbetts History of the Protestant Reformation in England, is used for the first time. The article reconstructs that narrative using printed and manuscript lectures and published interpretations dating from the first discussions of the Peoples Charter in 1836 to the last Chartist Convention in 1858. The manuscript lectures of Thomas Cooper are an essential but little-used source. The article contributes to historical understanding of the intellectual life of the English working class.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Open Access (free)
King and politicians 1760-1770

The eighteenth century was long deemed ‘the classical age of the constitution’ in Britain, with cabinet government based on a two-party system of Whigs and Tories in Parliament, and a monarchy whose powers had been emasculated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. This study furthers the work of Sir Lewis Namier, who, in 1929, argued that no such party system existed, George III was not a cypher, and that Parliament was an administration composed of factions and opposition. George III is a high-profile and well-known character in British history, whose policies have often been blamed for the loss of Britain's American colonies, around whom rages a perennial dispute over his aims: was he seeking to restore royal power or merely exercising his constitutional rights? This is a chronological survey of the first ten years of his reign through power politics and policy making.

Hutchinson and party politics, 1700–20
Andrew Sneddon

3 ‘A well affected man’: Hutchinson and party politics, 1700–20 From 1689 to 1714, Tory and Whig was the standing political division in Parliament and in the political identities assumed by most MPs. From time to time this pattern was upset by coalitions between court and country members of both parties. These coalitions were more prominent in the 1690s than in the 1700s and the 1710s, when the Tory party increasingly became the natural home of the committed country supporter. The court vs country divide was characterised by the quest of country members to

in Witchcraft and Whigs
Political prints of the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis – the revision of a republican mode
Christina M. Carlson

engravings. The term ‘political cartoons’ encompasses the vast panoply of illustrated printed propaganda on topical political issues, including broadsides, title-​page illustrations, engravings, woodcuts and pictorial representations accompanying contemporary ballads, from the end of the seventeenth century onwards.2 Addressing the difference between Whig and Tory accounts of this period provides a useful means of comprehending the nature of oppositional political discourse from the 1670s and 1680s and of understanding, in particular, how the more radical, Presbyterian

in From Republic to Restoration
Open Access (free)
Factions or parties?
Peter D.G. Thomas

Chap 11 19/8/02 11:50 am Page 237 11 Conclusion: factions or parties? The old concept of a two-party system of Whigs and Tories does not survive detailed knowledge of mid-eighteenth-century politics.1 By 1760 less than one hundred MPs could be deemed Tories even by a generous definition, and in the ensuing decade they split asunder, being variously attached to the Court or to factions, or remaining independent of all connections. The ministry at George III’s accession was a coalition of all the Whig groups, but soon fell apart. The next five ministries were

in George III
Britain and Europe, 1688–1788
Author: Daniel Szechi

The product of forty years of research by one of the foremost historians of Jacobitism, this book is a comprehensive revision of Professor Szechi’s popular 1994 survey of the Jacobite movement in the British Isles and Europe. Like the first edition, it is undergraduate-friendly, providing an enhanced chronology, a convenient introduction to the historiography and a narrative of the history of Jacobitism, alongside topics specifically designed to engage student interest. This includes Jacobitism as a uniting force among the pirates of the Caribbean and as a key element in sustaining Irish peasant resistance to English imperial rule. As the only comprehensive introduction to the field, the book will be essential reading for all those interested in early modern British and European politics.

Abstract only
English political economy and the Spanish imperial model, 1660–90
Leslie Theibert

a series of embarrassing defeats to the French and Portuguese and the loss of Spain’s European supremacy. 3 To Whig political economist Roger Coke, this decline appeared paradoxical, as Spain possessed ‘greater dominions than any kingdom of the western or perhaps of the eastern world’. 4 Yet the conquest of territory and influx of treasure from around the globe had not made the country powerful. Coke and other seventeenth-century political economists argued that possession of this overseas empire had rendered the Hapsburg monarchy obsolete, as it sapped the

in Making the British empire, 1660–1800