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White women and colonialism in Barbados and North Carolina, 1627–1865
Author: Cecily Jones

Whiteness, as a lived experience, is both gendered and racialised. This book seeks to understand the overlapping imbrication of whiteness in shaping the diverse material realities of women of European origin. The analysis pertains to the English-speaking slave-based societies of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and North Carolina in the American South. The book represents a comparative analysis of the complex interweaving of race, gender, social class and sexuality in defining the contours of white women's lives during the era of slavery. Despite their gendered subordination, their social location within the dominant white group afforded all white women a range of privileges, shaping these women's social identities and material realities. Conscious of the imperative to secure the racial loyalty of poor whites in order to assure its own security in the event of black uprisings, elite society attempted to harness the physical resources of the poor whites. The alienation of married women from property rights was rooted in and reinforced by the prevailing ideology of female economic dependence on men. White Barbadian women's proprietary rights as slave-owners were upheld in the law courts, even the poorest slaveholding white women could take recourse to the law to protect their property. White women's access to property was determined primarily by their marital status. The book reveals the strategies deployed by elite and poor white women in these societies to resist their gendered subordination, challenge the constraints that restricted their lives to the private domestic sphere, secure independent livelihoods and create meaningful existences.

Race and settler colonialism in Southern Rhodesia, 1919–79

This book explores the class experiences of white workers in Southern Rhodesia. Interest in white identity, power and privilege has grown since struggles over white land ownership in Zimbabwe in the early 2000s, yet research has predominately focused on middle-class and rural whites. By critically building upon whiteness literature developed in the United States and synthesising theories of race, class and gender within a critical Marxist framework, this book considers the ways in which racial supremacy and white identity were forged and contested by lower-class whites. It demonstrates how settler anxieties over hegemonic notions of white femininity and masculinity, white poverty, Coloureds, Africans and ‘undesirable’ non-British whites were rooted in class experience and significantly contributed to dominant white worker political ideologies and self-understandings.

Based on original research conducted in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Zimbabwe, this book also explores how white workers used notions of ‘white work’ and white ‘standards of living’ to mark out racial boundaries. In doing so the author demonstrates how the worlds of work were embedded in the production of social identities and structural inequalities as well as how class interacted and intersected with other identities and oppressions. This book will be of interest to undergraduates and academics of gender, labour, race and class in African and imperial and colonial history, the history of emotions and settler colonial studies.

White Settlers in Kenya, 1900s–1920s
Author: Brett L. Shadle

Kenya’s white settlers have long captivated observers. They are alternately celebrated and condemned, painted as romantic pioneers or hedonistic bed-hoppers or crude racists. If we wish to better understand Kenya’s tortured history, however, we must examine settlers not as caricatures, but as people inhabiting a unique historical moment. We must ask, what animated their lives? What comforted them and what unnerved them, to whom did they direct love, and to whom violence? The Souls of White Folk takes seriously – though not uncritically – what settlers said, how they viewed themselves and their world. It argues that the settler soul was composed of a series of interlaced ideas: settlers equated civilization with a (hard to define) whiteness; they were emotionally enriched through claims to paternalism and trusteeship over Africans; they felt themselves constantly threatened by Africans, by the state, and by the moral failures of other settlers; and they daily enacted their claims to supremacy through rituals of prestige, deference, humiliation, and violence. The book explains how settlers could proclaim real affection for their African servants, tend to them with intimate medical procedures, as well as whip, punch and kick them – for these were central to the joy of settlement, and the preservation of settlement. It explains why settlers could be as equally alarmed by an African man with a fine hat, Russian Jews, and a black policeman, as by white drunkards, adulterers, and judges – all posed dangers to white prestige.

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Alison Phipps

Chapter 3 Political whiteness As #MeToo unfolded, perhaps second only to Harvey Weinstein in its cast of antagonists was gymnastics coach Larry Nassar.1 In what is now called the ‘USA gymnastics sex abuse scandal’, Nassar was accused of molesting at least 250 girls and young women and one young man, between 1992 and 2016. In 2017 Nassar was sentenced to 60 years in federal prison after pleading guilty to child pornography charges. On 24 January 2018 he was sentenced to 40 to 175 years in a Michigan state prison after pleading guilty to seven counts of sexual

in Me, not you
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Consuming traditional middle-class culture
Meghji Ali

3 White spaces: consuming traditional middle-class culture I t was February 2017, and I was in Somerset House, a famous art gallery, for a photography exhibition entitled The Eye of Modern Mali. I recounted the following experience in my fieldwork journal, while the memory was still fresh in my mind: I enter the South Wing, take a moment to orient myself and walk toward Sibidé’s photography exhibition The Eye of Modern Mali. I decide I’d like to go to the bathroom first, so walk towards it, clearly signposted, placed right next to the café. Then I have my first

in Black middle class Britannia
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Englishness, ‘race’ and ethnic identities
Paul Thomas

exclusionary, especially at a time when a far-right party, the British National Party, has made significant political advances, The current ‘conversations’ about Englishness have also been triggered by mainstream political and media discourses questioning the national identity and loyalty of non-white British (and English) citizens at a very basic level. This chapter aims to discuss the

in These Englands

Global white nationalism is a path-breaking transnational history of white nationalism in the English-speaking world from the post-World War II period to the present. Nine chapters from leading experts in the histories of Australia, Britain, southern Africa, and the United States explore the roots of the contemporary resurgence of white supremacy evident in terrorist violence and electoral gains by the racist right. After 1945, this book shows, white nationalism emerged across the English-speaking world as a response to the forces of decolonization, civil rights, mass migration, and the rise of international institutions such as the United Nations. Far from a disappearing ideology, white supremacy proved resilient and adaptive. As opposition to apartheid rallied anti-racists globally, apartheid and Rhodesian independence sustained white nationalists who fantasized about bygone eras of imperial British or American greatness. In the era of decolonization and civil rights, white nationalists—those on the far right and those closer to the mainstream of conservative politics—formed key connections with counterparts throughout the world. Uncovering this transnational history for the first time, Global white nationalism is essential to understanding white nationalism today.

Steven Peacock

White has the appeal of the nothingness that is before birth, of the world in the ice age.’ ( Wassily Kandinsky ) 17 ‘Everything is possible.’ ( Mikolaj ( Janusz Gajos ), Three Colours: White ) Let’s start with a blank sheet

in Colour
Barbadian women and slaveholding
Cecily Jones

In 1778, Anne Phillips, a widow of St Michael parish, sat down with her eighteen-year-old daughter Eleanor and carefully drafted what was to be her last will and testament. Anne Phillips’s probated will is the only surviving trace of her existence, and hence we know very little about the life and experiences of this white Barbadian woman. Nor do we know for certain the situation

in Engendering whiteness
Sarah Nuttall

This chapter focuses on contemporary constructions of whiteness in South African autobiographies and other narratives of the self. It is a study of ways in which people who are referred to as white, and who understand themselves as such, account for this in narrative; in a specific set of texts. Most of the texts I look at are autobiographical, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s; a number of them draw simultaneously on different forms of self-narrative. In discussing these texts I hope to further an understanding of

in Rethinking settler colonialism