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Author: Nigel D. White

International organisations are a central component of modern international society. This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the intergovernmental organisation (IGO). It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The book presents case studies that show how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. After a note on the key relationship between the IGO and its member states, it examines the basic relationship between the UN and states in terms of membership through admissions, withdrawal, expulsion, suspension, and representation. The debate about the extent of the doctrine of legal powers is addressed through case studies. Institutional lawmaking in the modern era is discussed with particular focus on at the impact of General Assembly Resolutions on outer space and the Health Regulations of the World Health Organization. Non-forcible measures adopted by the UN and similar IGOs in terms of their legality (constitutionality and conformity to international law), legitimacy and effectiveness, is covered next. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping, to peace enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The book also considers the idea of a Responsibility to Protect and the development of secondary rules of international law to cover the wrongful acts and omissions of IGOs. It ends with a note on how the primary and secondary rules of international law are upheld in different forms and mechanisms of accountability, including courts.

Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

growing environmental stress, natural disasters and climate-change impacts ( IFRC, 2018 ; IPBES 2019 ; Myers et al. , 2017 ; Whitmee et al. , 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2016 ) estimated that exposure to ‘unhealthy environments’ caused 12.6 million deaths in 2012, with South East Asia and Western Pacific bearing the highest burden, of 7.3 million deaths. In 2015, exposure to environmental pollution was responsible for 16 per cent of deaths worldwide

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

Nations Global Pulse ). UNHCR ( 2005 ), ‘ Against All Odds’, UNHCR with Statoil, Microsoft, Erickson, Datareal AB, Paregos AB, TicTac Interactive AB , (accessed 14 October 2013 ). WHO ( 2017 ), World Health Statistics 2017: Monitoring Health for the Sustainable Development Goals ( Geneva : World Health Organization ). Wolpe , H. ( 1972 ) ‘ Capitalism and Cheap Labour Power in South Africa: From Segregation to Apartheid ’, Economy and Society , 1 , 425 – 56 . World Bank

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Harry Blutstein

14 Health of nations As a woman I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman, my country is the whole world. (Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas) ‘My name is Gro!’ When Gro Harlem Brundtland became director-­general of the World Health Organization in 1997, she found an organisation that had badly lost its way and, through her reforms, gave it hope. Like Kofi Annan, Brundtland was committed to help civilise globalisation. She did this by increasing resources devoted to improving health, particularly among the poor. Her success owes much to her ability

in The ascent of globalisation
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

–87. 2 Patricia Thomas, Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and the Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine (New York: Public Affairs, 2001); Jon Cohen, Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine (London: Norton, 2001). 3 SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy, Report of the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy (Geneva: World Health Organization, October 2014); Caitlin Jarrett, Rose Wilson, Maureen O’Leary, Elisabeth Eckersberger, Heidi J. Larson and SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy, ‘Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy – a

in Vaccinating Britain
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Problems of definition and historiography
Irina Metzler

World Health Organization's definition of intellectual disability (ID) incorporates social and environmental factors. American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which since the mid-twentieth century and over successive editions has become a standard reference for clinical practice in the mental health field. The question of social constructionism in medical history elicited two important articles by Ludmilla Jordanova, and David Harley, the latter arousing a lively debate, all in the journal Social History of Medicine. This chapter presents some concepts discussed in this book. The book considers the semantics of ID by looking at the words and labels used across time and place for conditions that might be subsumed by the umbrella-term 'intellectual disability' in modern Western society. It looks at the socio-cultural implications of ID through the lens of court fools, pets and entertainers.

in Fools and idiots?
Martin D. Moore

This chapter traces the development of standards documents in British diabetes care from the late 1970s to early 1990s. It argues, firstly, that the nature of guidance shifted dramatically over this period, gradually encompassing process and outcome standards, and setting standards for care and audit that encompassed proxies of managerial performance. New instruments thus opened care to external management, and challenged traditional views about clinical decision-making. Secondly, the chapter suggests that the growing role of elite professional and international organisations in guideline creation and audit marked the beginning of a more fundamental shift in the organisation of British medicine, one structured by political, cultural, and social trends but nonetheless driven in part by medical practitioners themselves. Amid decades of academic, popular, and political critique of medical practice and professional accountability, bodies like the Royal Colleges and World Health Organization moved to more tightly manage local practitioners in pursuit of ‘quality’ care. Though not all rank-and-file practitioners supported the proliferation of standards or the increasing role played by elite agencies in their creation and audit, by the early 1990s a growing professional and political consensus was growing around their centrality in securing quality medicine.

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Abstract only
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

physical, sexual, or psychological—is alarming in Africa, and more so because of the dearth of human and financial health resources to even begin to address the problem effectively in terms of treatment and prevention. The global health challenge The goal of improving global health has long been a central component of the development challenge and a longstanding priority of non-­ governmental organizations (NGOs) and humanitarian groups. Moreover, the potent linkages between poverty, development, and health are well-established, with the World Health Organization (WHO

in African security in the twenty-first century
From the development of a national surveillance system to the birth of an international network
Roberto Pasetto and Ivano Iavarone

human activities which have produced or might produce environmental contamination of soil, surface or groundwater, air, food-­chain, resulting or being able to result in human health impacts” (Martuzzi et al. 2014). Industrial a­ ctivities – e­ specially those related to large petrochemical plants, power generation, heavy industry such as steel mills, and ­mining – ­lead to environmental pressure, with potential adverse social and health effects on local communities through both occupational and residential influences (World Health Organization 2009). In recent years

in Toxic truths
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.