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Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

citizenry of photography. From June 1918 to April 1919, the American photographer Lewis Wickes Hine made photographs of refugees and other European civilians affected by World War I while working overseas for the American Red Cross (ARC). Refugees emerged as a new humanitarian subject in direct result of the changing global order that came with World War I. Hine’s photographs and the ARC’s use of them, both shaped and restricted public imagination with regard to refugees, and international spectators’ responses to them. Here, I explore Hine’s refugee photographs and more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book explores how skilled nursing practice develop to become an essential part of the modern health system. It traces the history and development of nursing practice in Europe and North America. The book explores two broad categories of nursing work: the 'hands-on' clinical work of nurses in hospitals and the work of nurses in public health, which involved health screening, health education and public health crisis management. Until the end of the eighteenth century sick children were, for the most part, cared for at home and, if admitted to hospital, were cared for alongside adults. Around 1900 the baby wards of the children's hospitals had a poor reputation because of their high mortality rates due to poor hygiene, malnutrition and insufficient knowledge of child and infant healthcare . The book relates particular experiences of Australian and New Zealand nurses during World War I, With a focus on 'the life of a consumptive' in early twentieth-century Ireland, it examine the experiences of the sanatorium patient. sanatorium nursing. As sanatoria became a special division of public health, sanatorium nursing developed as a branch of nursing distinct from other branches. An analysis of public health and nursing issues during the cholera epidemic shows the changes in the city's health administration and the nursing system after the epidemic. The nurses' work with schoolchildren, coal miners and migrant workers is also examined against the backdrop of economic, social, political, racial and healthcare forces.

Army, Medicine, and Modernity in WWI Germany

This book is a critical examination of the relationships between war, medicine, and the pressures of modernization in the waning stages of the German Empire. Through her examination of wartime medical and scientific innovations, government and military archives, museum and health exhibitions, philanthropic works, consumer culture and popular media, historian Heather Perry reveals how the pressures of modern industrial warfare did more than simply transform medical care for injured soldiers—they fundamentally re-shaped how Germans perceived the disabled body. As the Empire faced an ever more desperate labour shortage, military and government leaders increasingly turned to medical authorities for assistance in the re-organization of German society for total war. Thus, more than a simple history of military medicine or veteran care, Recycling the Disabled tells the story of the medicalization of modern warfare in Imperial Germany and the lasting consequences of this shift in German society.

Editor: Jana Funke

This book presents a wide range of previously unpublished works by Radclyffe Hall. These new materials significantly broaden and complicate critical views of Hall’s writings. They demonstrate the stylistic and thematic range of her work and cover diverse topics, including outsiderism, gender, sexuality, race, class, religion, the supernatural, and World War I. Together, these texts shed a new light on unrecognised or misunderstood aspects of Hall’s intellectual world. The volume also contains a substantial 20,000-word introduction, which situates Hall’s unpublished writings in the broader context of her life and work. Overall, the book invites a critical reassessment of Hall’s place in early twentieth-century literature and culture and offers rich possibilities for teaching and future research. It is of interest to scholars and undergraduate and postgraduate students in the fields of English literature, modernism, women’s writing, and gender and sexuality studies, and to general readers.

Influenza, war and revolution in Ireland, 1918–19
Author: Ida Milne

Ireland offers a particularly interesting canvas to study the social and political effects of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, which is the largest the world has ever known. The influenza inserted itself into every running theme in Irish society, from the over-burdened and disjointed medical system, to the growing discontent with British rule, and the difficulties imposed by World War I. The influenza pandemic was contemporaneous with the so-called German plot, where anti-conscription campaigners had been interned on a trumped up charge by the government. Two of the internees would die from the disease, even as nationalists warned of the dangers of being imprisoned at this time. This work also draws on oral histories with survivors who spoke of this disease they suffered as children at the end of their lives. It tells how doctors had their new confidence in bacteriology challenged as it failed to provide answers to cure patients. It tells too of the families who suffered loss, and often changing financial circumstances when parents died. Life, for some, was never the same, whether through continued ill health or loss of loved ones.

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The Calcutta Jute Wallahs and the Landscapes of Empire

Dundee had an interesting role to play in the jute trade, but the main player in the story of jute was Calcutta. This book follows the relationship of jute to empire, and discusses the rivalry between the Scottish and Indian cities from the 1840s to the 1950s and reveals the architecture of jute's place in the British Empire. The book adopts significant fresh approaches to imperial history, and explores the economic and cultural landscapes of the British Empire. Jute had been grown, spun and woven in Bengal for centuries before it made its appearance as a factory-manufactured product in world markets in the late 1830s. The book discusses the profits made in Calcutta during the rise of jute between the 1880s and 1920s; the profits reached extraordinary levels during and after World War I. The Calcutta jute industry entered a crisis period even before it was pummelled by the depression of the 1930s. The looming crisis stemmed from the potential of the Calcutta mills to outproduce world demand many times over. The St Andrew's Day rituals in Calcutta, begun three years before the founding of the Indian Jute Mills Association. The ceremonial occasion helps the reader to understand what the jute wallahs meant when they said they were in Calcutta for 'the greater glory of Scotland'. The book sheds some light on the contentious issues surrounding the problematic, if ever-intriguing, phenomenon of British Empire. The jute wallahs were inextricably bound up in the cultural self-images generated by British imperial ideology.

Charles Hulme

John Cassidy, born in Ireland and trained as a sculptor at the Manchester School of Art, was a popular figure in the Manchester area during his long career. From 1887, when he spent the summer modelling for visitors at the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, to the 1930s he was a frequent choice for portrait busts, statues and relief medallions. Elected to the Manchester Academy of Fine Arts, he also created imaginative works in all sorts of materials, many of which appeared at the Academys annual exhibitions. He gained public commissions from other towns and cities around Britain, and after World War I created several war memorials. This essay examines his life and work in Manchester, with particular reference to two major patrons, Mrs Enriqueta Rylands and James Gresham. A list of public works still to be seen in Greater Manchester is included.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

throughout movies produced by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), private charities and state-funded agencies during humanitarian operations launched in Eastern Europe after World War I. More specifically, it examines the performativity of moving images in making public claims, forging and channeling specific sensitivities among ephemeral audiences who gathered to watch these films. The ‘technologies of witnessing’ ( McLagan, 2006 : 191) offered by cinema not only allowed audiences to delve into the testimonial function of such images, but also to question

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

technology. Some of these displays were sent to world expositions in Vienna (1873), Paris (1878), and Brussels (1897) ( Hutchinson, 1996 : 165f). A full Red Cross museum was only realized by the end of World War I – in the United States. Many American Red Cross volunteers had collected significant symbolic gifts during their work in Europe. At the same time, American Red Cross president Henry Davison, teaming up with Broadway actress Eleanor Robson Belmont, looked for a place ‘to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

’ following the 9/11 attacks, violations of international humanitarian law (IHL) have been described as ‘increasingly serious’, culminating – at the time of writing – in systematic attacks on hospitals and other civilian sites in Syria. Similar attacks in Afghanistan, Yemen and South Sudan add to the picture of once respected IHL being trampled. Some offer numbers as evidence, citing the fact that the overwhelming percentage of victims in World War I were soldiers, compared with

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs