a criminal gang which trafficked Uyghurs from China to Turkey via Thailand was behind the 2015 Bangkok bombing after Thai authorities deported 109 Uyghurs to China, causing international outcry and anger in the Uyghur community. 22
In response to the recent developments in Xinjiang, there have been many changes in China's approaches to dealing with counterterrorism. Chinese political will to adopt and implement new such approaches was given a significant boost under the new leadership of XiJinping in 2013. This will be discussed in greater detail in the
Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.
understandings of how financial systems affect the course of socio-
economic development within contemporary global capitalism.
The distinctiveness of the interaction between political authority
and financial capital in China has the potential to profoundly
disrupt the presumed resilience of the global liberal order, even
as capitalism itself as a mode of social organization comes to be
increasingly entrenched within this global order.
An ongoing puzzle: the socialist market economy
XiJinping’s remarkable political ascent, reaching its peak at the
Nineteenth Party Congress
Citizenship challenge, social inequality and the insecure state
migrant-run organisations, workers’ representatives and ACFTU, as was sometimes the case under the previous leadership, the Party has taken tougher measures against striking workers and initiated an unprecedented crackdown on labour NGOs across China.
The acts of citizenship undertaken by NGOs also cut across some key political battles between the party-state's many agencies and different levels of government. As the central state is reconsolidating its power under XiJinping, local governments have ever more reasons to feel unsettled. During the
injecting a large dose of liberalism into their
outlook’ ( Barry, 1990 : 11). When faced with
Trump, XiJinping, Orban, Erdogan, Putin, Assad, Duterte, non-liberals all, how can the argument
for neutrality be successful? They see opponents not as legitimate competitors protected by a
set of institutional rules that limit the scope of conflict but as threats to be eliminated.
Chantal Mouffe differentiates ‘the political’ from ‘politics’: the
political is the sphere of existential conflict over the nature of the state where the most
This chapter discusses how NGOs challenge the mainstream citizenship
discourse and policies in relation to the first ‘site’ of citizenship
contestation: civic organising. It focuses, in particular, on instances when
the act of ‘networking’ transforms the wider citizenship structure. As an
‘act of citizenship’, networking is shaped by the limitations to civil and
political rights of citizenship in China, and this chapter illustrates how
networking can push for new practices of activist citizenship, such as
volunteerism and inter-NGO networking. Through the act of networking, NGOs
challenge the limitations of the hostile environment for
inter-organisational networking and assembly in China, redrafting what is
regarded as ‘acceptable’ for civic interactions. The chapter reflects on the
tremendous obstacles due to the constrictions of political space and the
transformation in the state’s approach to foreign funding under Xi Jinping,
and their consequences for NGOs’ survival.
Ten Lessons tells the story of modern China from the eve of the First Opium War to the Xi Jinping era. This was a most turbulent period of time as the Middle Kingdom was torn apart by opium, Christianity, modernisation, imperialists, nationalists, warlords and the Japanese, and as China reinvented and reasserted itself on the world stage in the post-Mao era. Unlike the handful of existing textbooks, which narrate without primary sources and without engaging with academic debate, Ten Lessons is devoted to students, from university to high school, as it uses extensive primary sources to tell the story of modern China and introduces them to scholarship and debates in the field of Chinese history and beyond. This will help students understand the real issues involved, navigate their way through the maze of existing literature and undertake independent research for essays and dissertations. The book also points out gaps and inadequacies in the existing scholarship, to encourage postgraduate studies. It is ‘mental furniture’ for the increasing army of journalists, NGO workers, diplomats, government officials, businesspeople and travellers of all kinds, who often need a good source of background information before they head to China.
This edited collection surveys how non-Western states have responded to the threats of domestic and international terrorism in ways consistent with and reflective of their broad historical, political, cultural and religious traditions. It presents a series of eighteen case studies of counterterrorism theory and practice in the non-Western world, including countries such as China, Japan, India, Pakistan, Egypt and Brazil. These case studies, written by country experts and drawing on original-language sources, demonstrate the diversity of counterterrorism theory and practice and illustrate that how the world ‘sees’ and responds to terrorism is different from the way that the United States, the United Kingdom and many European governments do. This volume – the first ever comprehensive account of counterterrorism in the non-Western world – will be of interest to students, scholars and policymakers responsible for developing counterterrorism policy.
their familiarity with ideology by putting it correctly into practice. 6 To the outsider, the term ‘socialist’ may seem an empty signifier, but inside the fold, it is vital to demonstrate adherence to and deep understanding of ‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics’.
In XiJinping’s China, ideology is perhaps more critical now than at any time since the ideological campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s. ‘We must uphold Marxism, firm up and further build the ideal of Communism and a shared ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and nurture and practise
Commission. 1 For the listeners, this report only made sense in the context of the crackdown initiated by XiJinping, who became president in 2012, ushering in a major push to rid China of corruption. Back in 2007, then President Hu Jintao ( 胡锦涛 ) warned: ‘Resolutely punishing and effectively preventing corruption bears on the public’s support for the Party and its very survival, and is, therefore, a primary political task the Party must attend to at all times.’ 2
His successor has taken this advice to heart and is just as conscious of the need for the ruling