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Tony Kushner

This chapter begins with a discussion of the concept of Hampshire studies. It considers the tradition of defining the essence and integrity of Hampshire, which is seen most clearly through various county magazines in Hampshire, especially after the Second World War. The chapter then discusses how those who have written and presented the Jewish past have perceived the local context and place identity within it. Local Jewish studies, especially in Britain, face a triple marginality. First, there is the antipathy, patronisation, or indifference of those working within ‘mainstream’ British or English history against minority studies. Second, within global Jewish studies similar attitudes towards the ‘local’ can be detected as within British historiography. Third, within British Jewish historiography and memory work more generally, reflecting power politics within the community as a whole, the provinces have been especially sidelined.

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
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Portraits of anarcho-Judaism

The previously unexplored legacy of religious anarchism in traditional Jewish theology is examined for the first time in this book. Probing the life and thought of figures whose writings have gone largely unread since they were first published, Hayyim Rothman makes, in the first place, a case for the existence of this heritage. He shows that there existed, from the late nineteenth though the mid-twentieth century, a loosely connected group of rabbis and traditionalist thinkers who explicitly appealed to anarchist ideas in articulating the meaning of the Torah, of traditional practice, of Jewish life, and the mission of modern Jewry. Supported by close readings of the Yiddish and Hebrew writings of Yaakov Meir Zalkind, Yitshak Nahman Steinberg, Yehuda Leyb Don-Yahiya, Avraham Yehudah Hen, Natah Hofshi, Shmuel Alexandrov, and Yehudah Ashlag this book traces a complicated story about the intersection, not only of religion and anarchism, but also of pacifism and Zionism, prophetic anti-authoritarianism, and mystical antinomianism. Bringing to light, not merely fresh source material, but uncovering a train of modern Jewish political thought that has scarcely been imagined, much less studied, No masters but God is a groundbreaking contribution.

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The Book of Esther in early modern biblical drama
Chanita Goodblatt

narrative enhance the respective carnivalesque performances of Sachs's Die Gantze Hystori der Hester (‘Comedy, The Entire History of Hester’) and the Yiddish Ein Schön Purim Shpil (‘A Beautiful Purim Play’). All three plays have only recently been translated into English, and so provide a new-found and fascinating opportunity to study what Pavel Drábek, in Chapter 12 of this book, terms a ‘transnational theatrical culture’. The carnivalesque and the Fool in the Book of Esther A study of early modern

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
John Edwards

‘Sephardic’] Jews who took their languages into exile after 1492 and 1497 respectively, thus creating what is today known as Ladino, and northern European [‘Ashkenazi’] Jews who gave the world the Yiddish language, based on medieval German. The scene was thus set for the development of Jewish life in western, as well as central and eastern Europe in the years after 1600

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
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Hayyim Rothman

newspaper and journal articles appearing in long ago defunct Yiddish and Hebrew periodicals, to previous unpublished archival material — it probes the life and thought of long-forgotten figures, whose writings have gone largely unread since they were first published, but which demonstrate the resonance of anarchism with Jewish religion conceived along traditional lines. In sum, it argues for the existence of something that might be called anarcho-Judaism — a term which I use to highlight its specifically religious nature and to distinguish it from phenomena like Jewish

in No masters but God
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: and

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

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The anti-colonial roots of American anarchist debates during the First World War
Kenyon Zimmer

anarchist Hillel Solotaroff, who presented his arguments in a series of articles for the Fraye Arbeter Shtime and other Yiddish publications. Solotaroff believed ‘not in religious nationalism, nor in cultural-political nationalism’, but rather in the right of Jews to organise themselves as a nation to defend themselves. Instead of advocating the creation of a Jewish nation state in Palestine, therefore, he envisioned a federation of ‘free communes’ – some Jewish, some Arab and some mixed – organised according to the principle of free association.22 Solotaroff and his

in Anarchism, 1914–18
A comparative analysis of their communities in Harbin, 1898-1930
Joshua A. Fogel

control. Russian Jews just longed to be left alone; in Harbin they were beyond the reach of the Russian government, and they prospered. Russian Gentiles had come to expect support from the regime; in Harbin they got none and did poorly. The first generation of Jewish settlers were generally bilingual in Russian and Yiddish, though, as was the case elsewhere, Yiddish soon gave way to Russian monolingualism in civil affairs, though it is not entirely clear when the transition occurred. Most of those interviewed have denied any

in New frontiers
Leeds Jewish tailors and Leeds Jewish tailoring trade unions, 1876–1915
Anne J. Kershen

Polish Jewish socialist writer Morris Winchevsky 10 took a more sympathetic view. Writing in the Yiddish pamphlet Zi Aur [Let There be Light] he argued that the Jewish worker was driven to drink and gambling out of desperation at the plight of his family: ‘When there is no work and a child at home is sick from the lack of food … and the other children cry “father, bread” … a man can be forgiven for drinking whisky and gambling.’ 11 Though based on what he had seen in London, Winchevsky’s words were equally applicable to those working in Leeds. As the demand for

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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American horror comics as Cold War commentary and critique

Printing Terror places horror comics of the mid-twentieth century in dialogue with the anxieties of their age. It rejects the narrative of horror comics as inherently and necessarily subversive and explores, instead, the ways in which these texts manifest white male fears over America’s changing sociological landscape. It examines two eras: the pre-CCA period of the 1940s and 1950s, and the post-CCA era to 1975. The authors examine each of these periods through the lenses of war, gender, and race, demonstrating that horror comics are centred upon white male victimhood and the monstrosity of the gendered and/or racialised other. It is of interest to scholars of horror, comics studies, and American history. It is suitably accessible to be used in undergraduate classes.