This chapter begins with a discussion of the concept of Hampshire studies. It considers the tradition of defining the essence and integrity of Hampshire, which is seen most clearly through various county magazines in Hampshire, especially after the Second World War. The chapter then discusses how those who have written and presented the Jewish past have perceived the local context and place identity within it. Local Jewish studies, especially in Britain, face a triple marginality. First, there is the antipathy, patronisation, or indifference of those working within ‘mainstream’ British or English history against minority studies. Second, within global Jewish studies similar attitudes towards the ‘local’ can be detected as within British historiography. Third, within British Jewish historiography and memory work more generally, reflecting power politics within the community as a whole, the provinces have been especially sidelined.
The previously unexplored legacy of religious anarchism in traditional Jewish theology is examined for the first time in this book. Probing the life and thought of figures whose writings have gone largely unread since they were first published, Hayyim Rothman makes, in the first place, a case for the existence of this heritage. He shows that there existed, from the late nineteenth though the mid-twentieth century, a loosely connected group of rabbis and traditionalist thinkers who explicitly appealed to anarchist ideas in articulating the meaning of the Torah, of traditional practice, of Jewish life, and the mission of modern Jewry. Supported by close readings of the Yiddish and Hebrew writings of Yaakov Meir Zalkind, Yitshak Nahman Steinberg, Yehuda Leyb Don-Yahiya, Avraham Yehudah Hen, Natah Hofshi, Shmuel Alexandrov, and Yehudah Ashlag this book traces a complicated story about the intersection, not only of religion and anarchism, but also of pacifism and Zionism, prophetic anti-authoritarianism, and mystical antinomianism. Bringing to light, not merely fresh source material, but uncovering a train of modern Jewish political thought that has scarcely been imagined, much less studied, No masters but God is a groundbreaking contribution.
narrative enhance the respective carnivalesque performances of Sachs's Die Gantze Hystori der Hester (‘Comedy, The Entire History of Hester’) and the Yiddish Ein Schön Purim Shpil (‘A Beautiful Purim Play’). All three plays have only recently been translated into English, and so provide a new-found and fascinating opportunity to study what Pavel Drábek, in Chapter 12 of this book, terms a ‘transnational theatrical culture’.
The carnivalesque and the Fool in the Book of Esther
A study of early modern
who took their languages into exile after 1492 and 1497
respectively, thus creating what is today known as Ladino, and
northern European [‘Ashkenazi’] Jews who gave the world
the Yiddish language, based on medieval German. The scene was thus
set for the development of Jewish life in western, as well as
central and eastern Europe in the years after 1600
newspaper and journal articles appearing in long ago defunct Yiddish and Hebrew periodicals, to previous unpublished archival material — it probes the life and thought of long-forgotten figures, whose writings have gone largely unread since they were first published, but which demonstrate the resonance of anarchism with Jewish religion conceived along traditional lines. In sum, it argues for the existence of something that might be called anarcho-Judaism — a term which I use to highlight its specifically religious nature and to distinguish it from phenomena like Jewish
Leeds Jewish tailors and Leeds Jewish tailoring trade unions, 1876–1915
Anne J. Kershen
Polish Jewish socialist writer Morris Winchevsky 10 took a more sympathetic view. Writing in the Yiddish pamphlet Zi Aur [Let There be Light] he argued that the Jewish worker was driven to drink and gambling out of desperation at the plight of his family: ‘When there is no work and a child at home is sick from the lack of food … and the other children cry “father, bread” … a man can be forgiven for drinking whisky and gambling.’ 11 Though based on what he had seen in London, Winchevsky’s words were equally applicable to those working in Leeds. As the demand for
A comparative analysis of their communities in Harbin, 1898-1930
Joshua A. Fogel
control. Russian Jews just longed to be left alone; in Harbin they were beyond the
reach of the Russian government, and they prospered. Russian Gentiles had come to expect
support from the regime; in Harbin they got none and did poorly.
The first generation of Jewish settlers were generally bilingual in Russian
and Yiddish, though, as was the case elsewhere, Yiddish soon gave way to Russian
monolingualism in civil affairs, though it is not entirely clear when the transition occurred.
Most of those interviewed have
The anti-colonial roots of American anarchist debates during the First World War
anarchist Hillel Solotaroff, who presented
his arguments in a series of articles for the Fraye Arbeter Shtime
and other Yiddish publications. Solotaroff believed ‘not in religious
nationalism, nor in cultural-political nationalism’, but rather in
the right of Jews to organise themselves as a nation to defend
themselves. Instead of advocating the creation of a Jewish nation
state in Palestine, therefore, he envisioned a federation of ‘free
communes’ – some Jewish, some Arab and some mixed – organised
according to the principle of free association.22 Solotaroff and his
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee.
Many prominent Jews joined the committee, including film director
Serge Eisenstein, the poet Peretz Markish, and one of the USSR’s top
scientists, Lina Shtern. But the choice for the leader of the committee
was unanimous: Solomon Mikhoels, the renowned director of the
Moscow Yiddish theater and probably the most famous Jew in the
USSR. After its formation, an incredible amount of work was done by
the Committee towards the war effort, including sending Mikhoels to
the USA to raise money.
After 1945 came a sharp bitter reversal. The happy
In time, the Sephardim were joined by Ashkenazic, Yiddish-speaking Jews from Germany – wealthy merchants, jewellers and craftsmen. Soon, Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim, a situation which intensified during the early Hanoverian years. Several large and imposing Ashkenazic synagogues were built in the City of London, which by the mid-eighteenth century also boasted a number of smaller houses of worship – shtiebls – established by less wealthy Jews of German and, significantly, Polish origin.
During the course of the century, large