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Britain, 1945–70

Policing Youth probes beneath the media sensationalism surrounding youth crime in order to evaluate the workings of juvenile justice and the relationship between young people and practitioners in a key era of social change (1945-70). The work of state representatives – the police, magistrates and probation officers - is mapped alongside models of discipline within families, neighbourhoods, schools and churches as well as the growing commercial sector of retail and leisure. Youth culture is considered alongside the social and moral regulation of everyday life.

The books uses a rich seam of sources – including criminal statistics, court registers, news coverage, contemporary surveys, autobiography, documentary and feature film – to reconstruct the relationship between national policy and local interventions. In so doing, it is offers an important comparison of England and Scotland, whose differences were formalised through separate legal and educational systems, whilst acknowledging the importance of region and municipality. It combines quantitative research methods with textual and spatial analysis, highlighting the significance of the material environment (including the post-war rebuilding of cities) in the management of young people’s behaviours. It shows that the period 1945-1970 saw a shift in modes of governance, as an increasing emphasis on young people’s capacity for self-determination was accompanied by more rigorous techniques of spatial restriction, exclusion and delimitation. Individual chapters focus on: police officers, the court system, violence, home and community, sexuality, commercial leisure, and reform.

Deborah Youngs

was commonly defined by their unmarried state, indicated by the descriptive terms ‘maiden’ (English), Maget (German) or bun (Welsh). Records in a broad range of European vernaculars also show the widespread use of the descriptive terms ‘young’ and ‘youths’. There is little to be gained from trying to pin these terms down precisely. As today, they were flexible enough to cover a range of ages from

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
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Melanie Tebbutt

1 Looking at youth Y outh assumed an important metaphorical significance in the interwar years, particularly in the early 1920s as nationalist, political, religious and military movements across Europe idealised young people as a force for change and moral regeneration, and educated and politicised youth gave literary vent to ‘grievances’ which helped to shape an ‘unprecedented’ opposition of ‘the young’ and ‘the old’.1 This chapter focuses on these generational issues and gender ambiguities by considering the significance that the energy and vitality of

in Being boys
David W. Gutzke

9 A youth subculture of drinking P ub and club going would become a mainstay of youth culture beginning in the 1980s, with four-fifths of all youths visiting them during the year. The fifteen- to twenty-four-year-olds were ten times more likely to go pubbing or clubbing than other age groups. Half of this age cohort frequented these venues at least monthly, with city centres of huge Northern cities – Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds, the club heartland – easily outdistancing London. From the mid-1990s, introduction of dance music revolutionized night clubs

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
A continuity in lifestyle
Brad Beaven

5 Male youth, work and leisure, 1918–39: a continuity in lifestyle T he interwar period witnessed a shift in attitudes towards the longstanding ‘problem’ of male youth leisure. As with the Victorian period, working-class youths were regarded with suspicion by the authorities, who worried that the latest degenerate leisure craze could result in tomorrow’s national failing. However, the difference from the Victorian era lay in the methodologies employed to investigate male youth behaviour. For the first time, thanks to new research emanating from the United

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
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Celia Hughes

2 Youth subcultures The New Left cultures that emerged around the VSC in the mid-1960s grew from radical subcultures young activists shaped earlier in the decade. Encounters with these subcultures often occurred in adolescence, the transitional period contemporaries generally regarded as spanning the years between fourteen and twenty-one, between childhood and legal adult age. For most young activists entry into the network around the VSC coincided with the first years of university, so that earlysixties subcultures bridged the social and psychological

in Young lives on the Left
Ian Goodyer

4 Rock Against Racism, youth culture and multiculturalism Some of the most vehement criticisms of RAR are concerned in one way or another with the organisation’s cultural basis. Some critics, as we have seen, have drawn attention to the narrow cultural range that came to define RAR’s activities, both in terms of the number of musical genres represented at concerts and the ethnic boundaries that were implicit in these choices. It has been argued that these limits were not, in some unproblematic way, an unavoidable by-product of a campaign that pursued

in Crisis music
Asia Argento as an Italian Difficult Woman
Giovanna Maina, Federico Zecca, Danielle Hipkins, and Catherine O’Rawe

This article offers a reconstruction of the birth of Asia Argento’s star image, with specific reference to the Italian context. Through an analysis of the media discourses that circulated around the actress in the early phase of her career (from the end of the 1980s to the 2000s), we can trace the evolution of her star image from enfant prodige of Italian cinema, and youth icon, to that of the ‘anti-star’ who strongly divides public opinion, owing to her unruliness on and off-screen. The article concludes that her pre-existing association with sexual transgression inflected how her behaviour with Harvey Weinstein and Jimmy Bennett was interpreted in the Italian public sphere.

Film Studies
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Marnie Hay

bidding of England. 1 This was the romanticised view of the Fianna’s military contribution to the struggle for Irish independence promoted by Countess Markievicz in the 1924 edition of the Fianna Handbook . Her words, written in the immediate aftermath of the Irish Civil War, reflected her view, and that of the republican youth group, that the Irish Revolution was unfinished, having been betrayed by those Irish people who supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Some of those people were former members of the Fianna. Young men and boys who had fought together during the

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
The effects of gender, households and ethnicity
Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith, and Paola Villa

Social reproduction of youth labour market inequalities 13 The social reproduction of youth labour market inequalities: the effects of gender, households and ethnicity Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith and Paola Villa Introduction Young people have been disproportionately hit by the economic crisis. In many  European countries, unemployment rates have increased faster for youth  than for prime age groups (O’Reilly et al., 2015). Vulnerability to the risks of poverty and precarious employment has been compounded by ­increasing  economic inequalities and the rise

in Making work more equal