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Using oral, archival and written sources, the book reconstructs the experiences of African women and men working in Zimbabwe’s hospitals in the twentieth century. It demonstrates how African nurses, i.e., nursing assistants, nursing orderlies, medics and State Registered Nurses were the spine of the hospital system and through their work ensured the smooth functioning of hospitals in Zimbabwe. The book argues that African nurses took the opportunity afforded to them by the profession to transform Zimbabwe’s clinical spaces into their own. They were interlocutors between white medical and nursing personnel and African patients and made Africans’ adjustments to hospital settings easier. At the same time, the book moves beyond hospital spaces, interrogating the significance of the nursing profession within African communities, in the process bridging the divide between public and private spaces. The book makes a significant contribution to global nursing historiography by highlighting how Zimbabwean nurses’ experiences within hospitals and beyond clinical spaces speak to the experiences of other nurses within the Southern African region and beyond. Through documenting the stories and histories of African nurses over a period of a century and the various ways in which they struggled and creatively adapted to their subordinate position in hospitals and how they transformed these healing spaces to make them their own, the book suggests that nurses were important historical actors whose encounters and experiences in Zimbabwe’s healing spaces – the hospitals – deserve to be documented.

Clement Masakure

In Zimbabwe, just as elsewhere, the end of colonial rule and the coming of independence ushered in a new era. Amongst other things, the new government faced an enormous task in revolutionising the health sector. For this work, the task placed emphasis on transforming the hospital system and, by extension, nurses’ working conditions. Besides expanding the health delivery system, 1 the new government took various steps to deracialise and democratise hospitals. The deracialisation and democratisation of hospitals in the first years of independence took two forms

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Joost Fontein

7 Remaking the dead, uncertainty and the torque of human materials in northern Zimbabwe Joost Fontein Introduction In Zimbabwe the politics of heritage, memory and commemoration has been the subject of considerable academic and public debate for a long time. In March 2011, however, this took a decidedly macabre twist when reports, accompanied with graphic photographs and video footage, emerged of massive war veteran-led exhumations taking place at the disused Monkey William mine at Bembera Village in Chibondo in Mount Darwin (northern Zimbabwe), where the

in Governing the dead
Race and settler colonialism in Southern Rhodesia, 1919–79

This book explores the class experiences of white workers in Southern Rhodesia. Interest in white identity, power and privilege has grown since struggles over white land ownership in Zimbabwe in the early 2000s, yet research has predominately focused on middle-class and rural whites. By critically building upon whiteness literature developed in the United States and synthesising theories of race, class and gender within a critical Marxist framework, this book considers the ways in which racial supremacy and white identity were forged and contested by lower-class whites. It demonstrates how settler anxieties over hegemonic notions of white femininity and masculinity, white poverty, Coloureds, Africans and ‘undesirable’ non-British whites were rooted in class experience and significantly contributed to dominant white worker political ideologies and self-understandings.

Based on original research conducted in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Zimbabwe, this book also explores how white workers used notions of ‘white work’ and white ‘standards of living’ to mark out racial boundaries. In doing so the author demonstrates how the worlds of work were embedded in the production of social identities and structural inequalities as well as how class interacted and intersected with other identities and oppressions. This book will be of interest to undergraduates and academics of gender, labour, race and class in African and imperial and colonial history, the history of emotions and settler colonial studies.

Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

, humanitarian action and human rights demands have been features of these foreign-policy demands. In the case of China, neither has been. And so concerted action in times of crisis will only take place because it threatens Chinese interests, promises China some kind of reputational benefit or is a case to which China is indifferent (like Mali, for instance). And China’s allies – from Sudan to Zimbabwe to Egypt to the Philippines to Kazakhstan to North Korea – can rest easier in the knowledge that China will not use human rights norms or humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

Sudan and Zimbabwe, HPN Network Paper 72 . London : Humanitarian Policy Group/Overseas Development Initiative . Stoddard , A. , Harmer , A. and DiDomenico , V. ( 2009 ), Providing Aid in Insecure Environments: 2009 update , in HPG Policy Brief 34

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Making Life Sing in Pursuit of Utu
Ndirangu Wachanga

University of New Brunswick in Canada, with a thesis on the different visions of Africa in the works of Chinua Achebe, Margaret Laurence, Elspeth Huxley and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. While in Canada until 1973, Micere was actively involved in political movements fighting for the liberation of southern African countries such as Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa. She was also active in the Black Power Movement in the United States. This is how she met and forged strong friendships with such activists as Angela Davis and Assata

in The Pan-African Pantheon
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Clement Masakure

was to transform the healing landscape in twentieth-century Zimbabwe. Plucked in time, the image also sums up the nature of work and the people who dispensed medicine within Zimbabwe’s hospitals for close to a century. The African nurse, with the guidance of the European nurse – even with the Africanisation that began in the 1960s onwards – remained the central figure in dispensing biomedicine to her fellow African patients. It is, therefore, a story that undergirds this book – the African nurse and everyday work in Zimbabwe’s hospitals in the twentieth century

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Rural development discourse in colonial Zimbabwe, 1944–79
E. Kushinga Makombe

In the nine decades of European colonialism in Zimbabwe the theory of rural development passed through many phases – during which different, even opposing points of view assumed orthodoxy. While a simplification, the social psychology of European colonialism was built largely around stereotypes informing perceptions and policies. One such perception

in Developing Africa
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Clement Masakure

In 2008, at the height of the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe, retired nurse Laiza Shumba visited a colleague who was working at Harare Hospital. What she saw there, as she put it, was a dire situation. The nurses were under-resourced and underpaid, and she knew they would not be able to fight the disease effectively without enough support from the authorities. In her interview with me a few weeks later, she observed that the modern nurse’s plight raises challenges from the past to an entirely new and unforeseen level: I am not saying it was all rosy in the past

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe