Authors: Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

This book regards Arab Islamism and liberalism as distinct political ideologies with all-encompassing views on the structure and appropriate roles of society and the state. The thesis presented here on the different functions of Israel and Zionism within these two ideologies refers to a protracted period of time. It also establishes several generalizations about the actions of individuals and groups in a vast geographic and linguistic space. The book first offers a chronological overview of the Islamist ideological opposition to Zionism. It portrays the main characteristics of and driving forces behind this resistance and explores the different pragmatic approaches toward Israel that have developed in the various epochs of Islamist thought. The book then discusses Islamist depictions of Zionism and Israel as role models and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations. It also offers a chronological overview of the evolution of liberal thought with regard to the Zionist enterprise. It depicts the various perceptions of peace and normalization created within this thought and demonstrates the contradictory ways in which the Arab liberal struggle for freedom and democracy has been intertwined with the Israeli-Arab conflict. Finally, the book discusses liberal interpretations that represent Zionism and Israel as role models, and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations.

A war of no compromises and compromises during war
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

1 Islamism, Zionism and Israel: a war of no compromises and compromises during war Since its inception and through to the present time, one of the appeals of Islamism has been its ability to crystallize complex theological and p ­ olitical ideas into simple and catchy formulae. Accessible to all, these formulae masquerade as clear-cut, unwavering, undeniable truths that are not up for negotiation; their authority originates from divine revelation and is supported by the lessons learned from reality itself. Another appeal of Islamism, particularly from its

in Zionism in Arab discourses
History of a divorce
Author: Paul Kelemen

This study examines how the diverse strands of the British left have interpreted the conflict in Palestine. From being overwhelmingly supportive of the Zionist movement’s effort to build a Jewish state in Palestine and welcoming Israel’s establishment the left, in the main, has become increasingly critical of Israel. The Labour Party, for much of its history, had portrayed Zionist settlement as a social democratic experiment that would benefit both Jews and Arabs. Its leaders turned a blind eye to the Zionist movement’s sectarian practices which through its trade union and agricultural co-operatives aimed to build an exclusively Jewish economy. The rise of fascism in Europe and the Holocaust reinforced the party’s support for Jewish state building in Palestine. The British Communist Party was by contrast critical of Zionism but in 1947, following the lead given by the Soviet Union, endorsed the United Nations’ partition of Palestine and subsequently ignored the plight of the Palestinian refugees. It was not until the rise of the new left, in the late 1960s, that Palestinian nationalist aspiration found a voice on the British left and began to command mainstream attention. The book examines the principal debates on the left over the Palestine/Israel conflict and the political realignment that they have helped to shape.

Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

3 Arab liberals between the struggle against despotism and the war against Zionism Arab liberals, Zionism and Israel Rationalism and pragmatism have been the two cornerstones of Arab liberalism from its dawn to contemporary times. Arab liberals have defined themselves as the standard-bearers of empirical science, technological development and social progress; those who look toward the future instead of dwelling on the past, and pave a way that is not strewn with solacing traditions, inebriating fantasies and far-fetched wishes. However, rationality and

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Paul Kelemen

2 Zionism and Anglo-Jewry Poale Zion’s effectiveness in gaining labour movement support partly depended on the wider Zionist movement’s campaign to win over Britain’s Jewish community. In 1930, well before Zionism came to dominate Anglo-Jewry’s political outlook, Lloyd George was advised, when addressing the Jewish electorate in Whitechapel, that it ‘would like to hear something brief and personal about Palestine’.1 In this period, declarations along these lines by prominent politicians would have been understood by most East End Jews as a gesture of

in The British left and Zionism
Abstract only
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

as a worthy opponent in the conflict with the Zionist enterprise, whether it is decided diplomatically or on the field of battle. Islamist thought has, from its beginning, regarded certain aspects of Zionism and eventually of the State of Israel as examples that should be followed. This approach is related to Islamism’s complex treatment of the West, a civilization that it seeks to reject and adopt at the same time. Based on the modernist-apologetic tradition, Islamists view some aspects of the West, and of Israel as a representation of the West, as distorted

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Janet Douglas

Introduction: genesis of Zionism The term ‘Zionism’ was first coined in 1885 by Nathan Birnbaum (1864–1937), a Viennese Jewish activist and writer, but as is often the case the invention of the name actually post-dated the phenomenon it sought to describe. From the 1870s, small Jewish agricultural settlements had been established in Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire, but the year 1881 represented a pivotal moment in the early history of Zionism. First, in that year Alexander II, the Tsar Liberator, was

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Zionism and Israel as role models in Islamist writing
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

2 ‘At Basel I founded an ideal for the Muslims’: Zionism and Israel as role models in Islamist writing An ideal for the Muslims A few months prior to the outbreak of the demonstrations in Tahrir Square that led to the ousting of President Husni Mubarak, Muhammad Mubarak, an Egyptian engineer and junior Muslim Brothers activist, published an article discussing the advantages Israel has over its Arab neighbours. Mubarak wrote that when he was a boy his knowledge of Israel was a mixture of information and emotion that did not sufficiently explain why the Zionists

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Israel as a role model in liberal thought
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

from Zionism. Reschid explains that ‘nothing could have been more wretched than an Arab village at the end of the nineteenth century. The peasants’ clay hovels were unfit for stables. The children lay naked and neglected in the streets, and grew up like dumb beasts.’ But now, thanks to the Jewish settlement, ‘everything is different […] these people are better off than at any time in the past. They support themselves decently, their children are healthier and are being taught something. Their religion and ancient customs have in no wise been interfered with. They

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Abstract only
Islamism and liberalism in the Arab world: some theoretical remarks
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

Introduction Islamism and liberalism in the Arab world: some theoretical remarks This book regards Arab Islamism and liberalism as distinct political ideologies with all-encompassing views on the structure and appropriate roles of society and the state. The thesis presented here on the different functions of Israel and Zionism within these two ideologies refers to a protracted period of time and establishes several generalizations about the actions of individuals and groups in a vast geographic and linguistic space. Therefore, a preliminary examination of the

in Zionism in Arab discourses