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Authors: Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

This book regards Arab Islamism and liberalism as distinct political ideologies with all-encompassing views on the structure and appropriate roles of society and the state. The thesis presented here on the different functions of Israel and Zionism within these two ideologies refers to a protracted period of time. It also establishes several generalizations about the actions of individuals and groups in a vast geographic and linguistic space. The book first offers a chronological overview of the Islamist ideological opposition to Zionism. It portrays the main characteristics of and driving forces behind this resistance and explores the different pragmatic approaches toward Israel that have developed in the various epochs of Islamist thought. The book then discusses Islamist depictions of Zionism and Israel as role models and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations. It also offers a chronological overview of the evolution of liberal thought with regard to the Zionist enterprise. It depicts the various perceptions of peace and normalization created within this thought and demonstrates the contradictory ways in which the Arab liberal struggle for freedom and democracy has been intertwined with the Israeli-Arab conflict. Finally, the book discusses liberal interpretations that represent Zionism and Israel as role models, and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations.

Israel as a role model in liberal thought
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

as a whole to the Zionist enterprise. From the beginning of the century the Zionists were largely regarded as usurping colonialists and, by the late 1930s, resistance to their enterprise vastly limited their freedom to operate. But Herzl was not entirely wrong. As Zionist settlements began to flourish across the country, Arab journalists of liberal orientation did not shy from expressing their appreciation of the modern structures and ways of thinking established by the Jewish European migrants. Reports and analyses in the liberal media almost never went as far as

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Abstract only
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

Conclusion From the early twentieth century through to the Arab Spring, Arab Islamist and liberal thinkers alike have identified the Zionist movement and Israel as enemies, or at least as adversaries – but also as role models that provide examples that should be followed. There is no intrinsic contradiction in the duality of the approach toward the Zionist enterprise; it reflects an ambivalent treatment of the ‘Western other’ in Arab Islamism and liberalism alike. Islamists have perceived the Zionist enterprise as an injustice and a historical distortion, whose

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Zionism and Israel as role models in Islamist writing
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

between the homeland and its diaspora; of scientific, economic, social and military development; and finally, as examples of true democracy where the leaders are subordinated to the will of the voters, not vice versa. At face value, this perception appears to inherently contradict the foundations of Islamist thought. How can the portrayal of Jewish sovereignty as diabolical, despicable, artificial, treacherous, manipulative, heartless and illegitimate coincide with the representation of the Zionist enterprise as a role model? Yet the duality of rejecting the enemy at

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

, rather, vacillated between them. The lack of a single, harmonious approach toward Israel was but one of many splits among Arab liberals. They were united over their basic demands for the future of Arab societies, but divided over their prioritizations and the different means of attaining their demands, hindering the creation of joint and stable frameworks. This chapter offers a chronological overview of the evolution of liberal thought with regard to the Zionist enterprise. It depicts the various perceptions of peace and normalization created within this thought and

in Zionism in Arab discourses
A war of no compromises and compromises during war
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

–95), was distinct among the group of small jihadist organizations that split from the Palestinian Muslim Brothers. In following Sayyid Qutb, its members adopted a stance whose principles forsook the effort to ‘warm the hearts and minds’ of the masses and replaced it with a jihad of an elite vanguard. In the short term, the movement’s charter called for the elimination of the Zionist enterprise, the liberation of Palestine and the establishment of an Islamic state on its land through an armed struggle. In the long term, it strives to meet the cultural challenge posed by

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Manchester Quakers and refugees, 1933–1937
Bill Williams

complete a novel, then as a resident in Woodlands Road, Crumpsall, in what was then a new area of Jewish settlement in north Manchester. He was the sort of man, like the academics arriving at the University of Manchester, who might just have won Laski’s support, although no evidence of their encounter survives.75 There is some evidence, too, that some members of the ISC were ill at ease with the increasingly vocal Zionist enterprise, seeing in it, perhaps, a form of divisive nationalism at odds with Quaker notions of the Brotherhood of Man. In June 1938, when the

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Abstract only
An inspiring model
Meir Hatina

, being based on the massive endeavor of bringing in people from distant corners of the globe and settling them in the heart of a hostile region. Salih Bashir’s interesting explanation of the Zionist enterprise was that Diaspora Jews who believed in Zionism broke away completely from the history of the countries they had left behind (e.g. Russia and Poland) and immediately plunged into a new history centered in Palestine, where the ancient kingdom of the Israelites was to be reconstructed. For those who settled in Palestine, the reality of life

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age
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Islamism and liberalism in the Arab world: some theoretical remarks
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

, Nasserist, Islamist and Marxist approaches to Israel, with particular attention given to representations of the Zionist enterprise as an arm of imperialism. His study highlighted the centrality of the perception of Zionism as a threat, but also pointed to the diversity of opinions with regard to Israel within the Egyptian political discourse.44 Elie Podeh explored in what ways history and geography textbooks in Egypt presented Israel and the Arab–Israeli conflict between 1955 and 1998. He found that the defeat in 1967 and the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Contested Nakba narratives as an ongoing process
Ronit Lentin

about melancholia in Chapter 3 and of the narratives of realisation discussed in Chapter 5, I conclude by interrogating the identitarian duality of Israeli Jewish victimhood and guilt. ‘New historians’ and contested narratives Benny Morris says he was always a Zionist. People who branded him postZionist, who thought that his historical study of the birth of the refugee problem aimed to undermine the Zionist enterprise were simply wrong. Nonsense, Morris says, some readers simply misread the book [...] Therefore they reached the wrong conclusion, that when Morris

in Co-memory and melancholia