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Louis XIV’s military occupations of Lorraine and Savoy
Author: Phil McCluskey

This book investigates the occupations of two of the territories, Lorraine and Savoy, both of which were occupied twice during the course of Louis's personal rule: Lorraine in 1670–1697 and 1702–1714, Savoy in 1690–1696 and again in 1703–1713. It first provides some necessary background in terms of French frontier strategy during the seventeenth century, and also relations between France, Lorraine and Piedmont-Savoy in the longer term. It includes a brief account of the occupation of Lorraine under cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin, to provide useful comparison with an earlier occupation. The book then gives a narrative analysis of the occupations from the point of view of France's strategic priorities. It also considers the administrative side of the occupations, in terms of the structures and personnel put in place by the French regime and the financial and security burdens imposed on the occupier and the occupied. The book further investigates French policy towards elite groups, and their reactions to French occupation. It looks at the ways in which the nobilities responded: whether they chose to collaborate with or resist the French, and what forms that collaboration and resistance took. The attention then turns to those who held offices in occupied territories, in the sovereign courts, where they continued to exist, as well as in the lower, subaltern courts and the towns. Finally, the book considers the French church policies towards, and the responses of, the episcopate, the religious superiors and the lower regular and secular clergy.

The essentials
Series: Politics Today
Author: Bill Jones

'Politics' with a big 'P' is concerned with how we, individuals and groups, relate to the state. This book commences with a definition of political activity with a focus on conflict, and government and democracy. Britain is, arguably, the oldest democracy in the world, though it took many centuries for it to evolve into its current 'representative' form. Conflict resolution depends on the political system involved. The book draws together all the elements of government, explaining the British system of governance, which is democracy but utilises representatives. Civil service advises ministers and carries out the day- to-day running of government. The book then describes the transformation of the British system of governance from an absolute monarchy to a representative democracy. It examines how economic changes have affected Britain over the centuries, and presents some thoughts on the absence of a modern British revolution. It presents an account of Britain's economic history, the class developments and differences, and the absence of a modern revolution despite astonishing levels of income inequality. Factors that might influence the political culture of Britain are discussed next. The book also touches upon the sources of British constitution, the process of constitutional amendments prevailing in the U.S. and Britain, current British politics, and the development of pressure groups in Britain. Finally, the history of party government in Britain, and details of the Conservative Party, Labour Party, the Social and Liberal Democrats, House of Commons, and Britain's international relations are discussed.

Philip M. Taylor

was (at that time) incontestably the preeminent power in Europe. Devoting half of his working day to court life as a means of ensuring the continued loyalty and unity of the aristocracy through the dispensation of privileges and honours (with the chief nobles living in, where Louis could keep an eye on them), the king allowed ministers such as Colbert and Le Tellier to administer his absolute monarchy and create the finest army in Europe. To Louis, prestige was the essence of his power. His palace at Versailles was not designed simply to impress friend and foe alike

in Munitions of the Mind
Bill Jones

The story of British democracy’s evolution is one of the most remarkable in the history of government, as it tells the tale of how an original absolute monarchy, in charge of making, implementing and interpreting the laws of the land, slowly morphed – through the monarch’s reliance on advisory councils – into a system which represented all parts of the country, which, to be effective, required the acquiescence of such representative bodies and finally acquired the crucial characteristic of being elected by each citizen in the country. ‘From absolute monarchy to

in British politics today
Edmund Bohun’s rehabilitation of Patriarcha, the issue of allegiance and Adamite anti-republicanism
Cesare Cuttica

brook this sort of Tractates of all other’.25 In fact, ‘this Piece was not to be indured in such a crisis of Affairs’, so that his enemies tried at all costs ‘to cry it down, and make the people believe sir Robert Filmar was for an Absolute Monarchy Jure divino’.26 Amongst the guilty ones was Tyrrell, who had claimed that for Filmer the only legitimate form of government was an unlimited monarchy27 and had unfairly concluded that sir robert’s monarch ‘can ever be obliged by any Fundamental’ laws or ‘any Coronation Oaths, to abstain from the Lives, Liberties and

in Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653) and the patriotic monarch
‘Republican’ defences of monarchy at the Restoration
Glenn Burgess

monarchy and a commonwealth (or republic) was never ubiquitous. It jostled with more complex linguistic and conceptual usages. It was always a position more than a language. Thus John Toland, writing in 1717, used a complex set of terms that was always teetering on the edge of collapse into simple dichotomy, in the end just managing to maintain its balance. His purpose (and in this he resembled many who wrote in support of parliament in the 1640s) was to show that absolute monarchy could never be a legitimate form of rule because it was incompatible with commonwealth

in From Republic to Restoration
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Religion and politics in the progress of 1578
Patrick Collinson

conundrum of counsel, which was the greatest political problem of an age which brought into uncomfortable partnership nearly absolute monarchy and a civic-minded humanism, was never more nakedly exposed. East Anglia in 1578 is where historical geology is best able to uncover the fundamental faultline in Elizabethan politics. Given the marked policy differences between the queen and many of her councillors and courtiers, it sometimes looks as if there were two governments, not one, in mid-Elizabethan England. The issues included policy towards the Netherlands (where it

in This England
Thai post-colonial perspectives on kingship
Irene Stengs

had both attended the ceremony, confirms everything she knows, leading her to exclaim in excitement that ‘history is not wrong’ and ‘it is the truth’ ( pen khwam jing ). The didactic elements of Bupphesanniwat , albeit wrapped up in humour and appealing aesthetics, are not to be regarded as mere entertainment, but as an inherent dimension of a cultural politics geared at promoting Thai moral values and culture, with a pivotal role for love for the king/monarchy and national unity. 15 The colonial rule of an absolute monarchy In today’s politics, history

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Fénelon, Jacobitism and the political works of the Chevalier Ramsay

Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686-1743) was a Scottish Jacobite émigré who spent most of his adult life in France. His political works predominantly relied on a mixture of British and French doctrines to stimulate a Jacobite restoration to the British throne. Ambitious and controversial, Ramsay believed that key reforms and a growing empire would make Britain the ‘capital of the universe.’ His position as an intellectual conduit between the two kingdoms enables an extensive assessment of the political thought in Britain and France. Examining a number of important thinkers from the 1660s to the 1730s, this work stresses the significance of seventeenth century ideology on the following century. Crucially, the monograph explores the exchange of ideas between the two countries in the early Enlightenment. A time when Britain had rejected the absolutist pretensions of James II in the Glorious Revolution (1688) to protect mixed sovereignty and a key role for Parliament. This enshrinement of liberty and mixed government struck a chord in France with theorists opposed to Louis XIV’s form of centralised sovereignty. Following Louis XIV’s death in 1715, greater support for monarchical reform became evident in French political theory. Aided by the viewpoints and methodology of intellectual conduits such as Ramsay, shared perspectives emerged in the two countries on the future of monarchy.

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Phil McCluskey

_AbsolMonarchy.indd 1 12/03/2013 16:10 2 absolute monarchy on the frontiers territory were upheld by theorists such as Grotius. The rationale was that the conqueror was allowed to reap his just military rewards during the prosecution of war itself. Grotius conceded far-reaching rights and powers to the conqueror over the lives and the freedom of the people of the conquered territory and their movable goods.4 He nevertheless advised moderation in the treatment of conquered populations, and argued that it was better to leave them to govern themselves if this did not interfere with

in Absolute monarchy on the frontiers