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Ireland in a global world
Series: Irish Society

Migration to and from Ireland is often the subject of definitive claims. During the 1980s, migration from Ireland was most commonly described as a brain drain. Despite the constant flows and counterflows, academic studies tend to focus on just one direction of movement, reflecting dominant concerns at particular points in time. The 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. This book addresses the three key themes from a variety of spatial, temporal and theoretical perspectives. The theme of networks is addressed. Transnational loyalist networks acted both to facilitate the speaking tours of loyalist speakers and to re-translate the political meanings and messages being communicated by the speakers. The Irish Catholic Church and specifically its re-working of its traditional pastoral, lobbying and development role within Irish emigrant communities, is discussed. By highlighting three key areas such as motives, institutions and strategies, and support infrastructures, the book suggests that the Irish experience offers a nuanced understanding of the different forms of networks that exist between a state and its diaspora, and shows the importance of working to support the self-organization of the diaspora. Perceptions of belonging both pre- and postmigration encouraged ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. Finally, the book provides insights into the intersections between 'migrancy' and other social categories including gender, nationality and class/position in the labour hierarchy.

Negotiating identity and place in asylum seeker direct provision accommodation centres
Angèle Smith

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 164 9 Betwixt, between and belonging: negotiating identity and place in asylum seeker direct provision accommodation centres Angèle Smith When speaking with Ilissa1 about life in Ireland in the asylum seeker direct provision accommodation centre, she explained that, ‘It will never be your real home – nothing you can do will make it your real home. But you need to make this time and place some kind of home for you, like you belong to something, otherwise you will just go mad.’ (Excerpt from field notes, A. Smith, 24

in Migrations

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

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Mark Maguire and Fiona Murphy

Irish people still remember visits to Butlins or receiving postcards from holidaymakers with colourful images of the swimming pool, the boating lake or the American Bar. In 1982, however, the Butlins camp was sold and became Mosney Holiday Centre. Eighteen years later the camp was bought by the state and turned into an accommodation centre for asylum seekers. The odd-looking buildings that are visible from the train are now the temporary homes of an astonishing variety of people who, in many ways, do not exist. During the 1990s the numbers of people claiming asylum in

in Integration in Ireland
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

means that news can be often consumed in a fragmentary manner, 102 Social media, mutual aid and solidarity movements and that refugees are often reliant on networks of friends, family, and diaspora networks. In Italy these structural obstacles to accessing news did not exist, as accommodation centres generally provide free wi-fi. Those needing access to the internet outside the accommodation centres used part of their daily allowance to purchase mobile data. However, in certain cities, asylum seekers were housed in hotels without free wi-fi, which provoked protests

in How media and conflicts make migrants
A visual analysis of four frames of representation of ‘refugeeness’ in Swedish newspapers
Jelena Jovičić

share – fourteen images or about 23 per cent – counts towards the humanization frame. Inside Sweden, the newspaper photography rarely, and only late during the sample period, depicts refugees as large masses of de-individualized people. Rather, within this frame, refugees are depicted as individuals or small groups set in private spaces such as rooms inside accommodation centres or public spaces such as cafes, classrooms or nurseries. This finding can be illustrated by pointing to the portrait photography depictions. As an example, let us take Image 9 (SvD), an

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
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Ireland and its relationship with migration
Allen White and Mary Gilmartin

. Angèle Smith 3995 Migrations.qxd:text 10 5/8/13 11:38 Page 10 I NTRODUCTION highlights the dilemmas of belonging for asylum seekers in Ireland. Her chapter is based on ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. The legal, social and spatial limbo of asylum seekers forced to live in these Direct Provision centres means they constantly experience a world betwixt and between. Transnational life is frequently a life marked by experiences of simultaneously belonging and non-belonging, belonging to more than one place

in Migrations
Charlotte McIvor

International Theatre Project, which aimed to offer ‘legally resident migrants an opportunity to be involved in the planning and delivery of a community-based drama project’ and ‘[p]rovide a platform for Irish citizens and new migrants to participate handson in an imaginative and creative arts process within their local area’ (Hayes, 2008: 3). This project built on Upstate’s 2002 collaboration with Droichead Youth Theatre and a group of youths seeking asylum in Ireland and housed at the nearby Mosney Accommodation Centre, which is run by the Department of Justice, Equality

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
Exploring the experiences of migrant children in Irelandc
Allen White, Naomi Tyrrell, Fina Carpena-Méndez, and Caitríona Ní Laoire

across the Republic of Ireland, including cities, suburbs, small towns and rural areas. A majority lived in the southwest region and in the Dublin region, while a number also lived in a range of locations in the west and north-west. They had moved from a wide range of international locations, including over twenty different countries. The 3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 122 11:39 Page 122 B ELONGING research was conducted in children’s homes, schools, youth clubs, cafes and an asylum accommodation centre. Adults – parents, teachers and playworkers – were also

in Migrations
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Mary Gilmartin

freedom of movement without consequences, as local authorities regulate access to social housing. Equally, asylum seekers must live where they are housed, which could require them to move between direct provision accommodation centres at short notice. Work permits or student visas may be tied to specific employers or education institutions, and this also places a de facto restriction on internal mobility. This could have broader consequences – it could limit job opportunities or access to services, for example – but these are not formal legal restrictions. However

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century