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William Trevor is one of the most accomplished and celebrated contemporary prose writers in the English language. This book offers a comprehensive examination of the oeuvre of one of the most accomplished and celebrated practitioners writing in the English language. Trevor is very interested in popular literature and how certain genres run through people's lives like tunes or family memories. His characters are often 'turned in on themselves', strange, extreme, at odds with the world. The various betrayals, manipulations and acts of cruelty that constitute the representative events of The Old Boys are typical of Trevor's England. The book also explores the ways in which Trevor's liberal humanist premises condition his response to issues of historical consciousness, ideological commitment and political violence. Trevor's short story, 'Lost Ground', from After Rain, conforms to Aristotle's vision of tragedy because it depicts a truly horrendous situation inside a family in Northern Ireland. Notable screen fictions illustrating long-term migrant themes include Attracta, Beyond the Pale and Fools of Fortune. Trevor's short story 'The Ballroom of Romance' evokes memories of dancehall days, partly explains this public appeal, which was enhanced by the BAFTA award-winning film adaptation of the story by Pat O'Connor. Love and Summer is a lyrical, evocative story of the emotional turbulence based on a critical variety of nostalgia that recognises both the stifling limitations of a small-town environment and the crucial connection between ethics and place.

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Aspects of Trevor’s England
George O’Brien

various stages of second adolescence, with all of the immaturity and petty egotism such a condition suggests. According to one of the group’s former teachers, the school is ‘A miniature of the world’ (OB 94), but the small-minded plotting and lack of a sense of proportion on the part of Jaraby, the aspiring President of the Old Boys’ Association, renders the world a miniature of the school. The various betrayals, manipulations, manifestations of incompetence and acts of cruelty that constitute the representative events of The Old Boys are typical of Trevor’s England

in William Trevor
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Thomas Almeroth-Williams

There was a powerful class dimension to human–animal interactions in the Georgian metropolis: animals benefited propertied Londoners most and plebeian men shared increasingly strenuous daily regimes with their equine co-workers. William Hogarth condemned those who worked with animals for being brutal, and historians often accept this at face value. But evidence of tangible interactions on the streets reveals that urbanisation and industrialisation denied drovers, coachmen and carters the conditions upon which the co-operation of their animals depended, and this put them in a perilous position. Some studies have suggested that eighteenth-century Londoners spearheaded a new compassion for animals in reaction to seeing so many acts of cruelty, but testimonies recorded in a parliamentary report into the Smithfield livestock trade, combined with other evidence of lived experiences, suggest that this is too simplistic. Many of the issues discussed in this book are relevant to debates about twenty-first-century urbanisation, social relations, animal welfare and ecological crisis – the story of a metropolis at the dawn of the modern age, in which animals were ubiquitous and essential, matters more than ever.

in City of beasts
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Class, religion and animal exploitation, 1830–45
Juliana Adelman

control working-class behaviours that they disapproved of or to ‘suppress dangerous elements of human society’. Teaching kindness to animals, some believed, could teach self-control to children and to the poor. 19 Kindness to animals became a mark of civilisation; the British parliament enacted measures against animal cruelty before prohibiting child labour or abolishing slavery. 20 Ideas about class influenced the choice of which acts of cruelty to pursue. Our wealthy young lady’s brother and father may have participated in hunting free from scrutiny while the Royal

in Civilised by beasts
Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

Norman Geras

, the source of the original sceptical question; we will get a view of human nature according to which there is such an implacable curse. Let us call this, then, assumption (3). It is the assumption, as we have already seen it expressed, ‘that evil on a huge scale is part of the human condition’. It is the assumption that ‘humanity … cannot escape from the slaughterhouse, and is doomed to add, generation upon generation to the end of time, to the catalogue of collective cruelty.’ It is the assumption that, as to the many smaller-scale ‘individual acts of cruelty

in The contract of mutual indifference
Louise A. Jackson

century – created a significant space within the ‘social’ sphere that policewomen developed as their own.4 Since 1889, a police officer could remove a child from its home to ‘a place of safety’ (in the first instance, a police station) if acts of cruelty had been committed, without the need for a magistrate’s warrant.5 The ‘beyond control’ clause, also introduced in 1889, entitled parents to seek assistance from the courts if they felt they could no longer cope with their children. The 1908 Children’s Act, which applied to the whole of the UK, added ‘neglect’ – the lack of

in Women police
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Allyn Fives

higher norm. It is a judgement made from within a world where cruelty occurs as part both of our normal private life and our daily public practice. By putting it irrevocably first – with nothing above it, and with nothing to excuse or forgive acts of cruelty – one closes off any appeal to any order other than that of actuality. (Shklar 2006 [1982] , p. 81) As we can see from this passage, in judging cruelty to be the supreme evil , Shklar does not appeal to theological norms, but

in Judith Shklar and the liberalism of fear
Meg Holden

other, humanists seek to reconceptualise politics to better include nature as part of human deliberations. Reasoned views from both poles were articulated in order to clarify the nature of the impasse, and the importance of seeking resolution in order to generate more effective action. This chapter has highlighted the inescapability of humanism, as well as its perils. Looking at the facts, we know that the living world might well be much better-off ‘without us’ and that our humanism has been used to justify innumerable acts of cruelty and injustice. At the same time

in The power of pragmatism
The demonic adoptee in The Bad Seed (1954)
Elisabeth Wesseling

disinheriting the rightful heirs of the powerful land-owning families he had become linked with through the benevolence of his adoptive father. Like Rhoda, Heathcliff seems to be utterly devoid of tender sentiments after the loss of his beloved Cathy, engaging in wilful acts of cruelty such as hanging the lapdog of Isabella Linton for no good reason at all, which seems to be a foreboding of Rhoda’s cold

in Gothic kinship