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The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab
Author: Lucy P. Chester

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

Radcliffe’s private deliberations
Lucy P. Chester

to have taken to heart Auchinleck’s advice that South Asian rivers often altered course. In his award, he made it very clear that, even when the boundary ran near a river, it was the nearby administrative boundary that actually marked the international line. Radcliffe did not seriously consider ‘natural’ boundaries, either, despite the fact that party leaders on all sides had pushed for their use. In

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

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Warriors and administrators
Patrick O’Leary

or less along the fringe of the foothills. 9 This was the administrative boundary, up to which the normal laws of Punjab applied; in the tribal area beyond this, various means of indirect and even, on occasion, direct control were tried and the story of these attempts, and Irish participation in them, will run as a thread throughout this chapter. The exercise of such control, and the form it would

in Servants of the empire
The historical context of partition
Lucy P. Chester

subcontinent as a unified space – unified, of course, under British rule. This apparent unity was deceptive, however, because the Indian empire was actually cobbled together from a combination of states headed by princes under Britain’s indirect rule, and provinces directly ruled by the British. Administrative boundaries were vital to this image of unity. They marked British-created units of governance, units

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
Patrick O’Leary

office he found that as many as 10,000 troops were stationed beyond the administrative boundary as a result of the unrest caused mainly by the assertion of the Raj’s authority on the Malakand. Plans were in hand for the construction in tribal areas of costly fortifications which had no lateral communications. Not only was this deployment costly, risky and inefficient, it also caused

in Servants of the empire
John Beckett

in the second volume of the Agricultural History Review. Darby noted how county historians and topographical writers had struggled to classify the countryside, because it could not easily be squeezed into the administrative boundaries imposed for convenience by earlier generations. He pointed to what for a geographer was the obvious fact, that any study of the rural community could make little progress if it was constrained by county and parish boundaries. Even the great county historians, he argued, despite their emphasis on antiquities, natural history and local

in Writing local history
Alternatives to the Radcliffe award
Lucy P. Chester

was doomed to disrupt Punjab’s road, rail, telegraph, electricity and irrigations networks. Rivers also posed a major potential problem. Radcliffe’s textual description attempted to prevent any uncertainty about the path of the boundary, which on the map appeared to follow the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers, by stating that the existing administrative boundary, not the river, was the

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
Abstract only
The region and the community
John Beckett

characteristics which can be traced back to their earliest settlement history.31 He developed this in his book The Pattern of Rural Dissent (1971), and more fully in 1979, when he wrote that the basic regional pattern in this country has in many ways not remained constant: it has been an evolutionary pattern. Not only have regional boundaries changed: at a more fundamental level, new kinds or types of region have from time to time come into existence and overlaid or transformed the old.32 County and other administrative boundaries, he suggested, were of little use to the local

in Writing local history
The aftermath
Lucy P. Chester

localities went where without a good understanding of the administrative boundaries in those areas. 36 For those on the move, however, the boundary was defined in purely practical terms: they knew they were on the other side of the border when they were safe. Crossing the line meant entering a zone of protection – even if that protection, provided by the crumbling PBF and by state apparatuses struggling under

in Borders and conflict in South Asia