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After many years at the margins of historical investigation, the late medieval English gentry are widely regarded as an important and worthy subject for academic research. This book aims to explore the culture of the wide range of people whom we might include within the late medieval gentry, taking in all of landed society below the peerage, from knights down to gentlemen, and including those aspirants to gentility who might under traditional socio-economic terms be excluded from the group. It begins by exploring the origins of, and influences on, the culture of the late medieval gentry, thus contributing to the ongoing debate on defining the membership of this group. The book considers the gentry's emergence as a group distinct from the nobility, and looks at the various available routes to gentility. Through surveys of the gentry's military background, administrative and political roles, social behaviour, and education, it seeks to provide an overview of how the group's culture evolved, and how it was disseminated. The book offers a broad view of late medieval gentry culture, which explores, reassesses and indeed sometimes even challenges the idea that members of the gentry cultivated their own distinctive cultural identity. The evolution of the gentleman as a peer-assessed phenomenon, gentlemanly behaviour within the chivalric tradition, the education received by gentle children, and the surviving gentry correspondence are also discussed. Although the Church had an ambivalent attitude toward artistic expression, much of the gentry's involvement with the visual arts was religious in focus.

Philomena Gorey

This chapter explores the limited evidence that survives from early modern Ireland relating to the licensing and regulation of midwifery, both by the Catholic and Protestant churches and by the Dublin College of Physicians. It situates episcopal regulation in the context of the churches’ wider administrative roles in society. It also relates Catholic and Protestant practice to concerns around the proper performance of baptism. The process whereby the College of Physicians very gradually became active in regulating midwifery is also reconstructed.

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
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Joe McGrath

agencies existed, they mostly played an ancillary or administrative role and were also so under-resourced as to be ineffective. Since the 1990s, however, numerous specialist agencies were established to police corporate elites. Though resourcing continued to be an issue in some respects, these agencies were better staffed and resourced than ever. Moreover, these agencies were interdisciplinary in nature, staffed by accountants, lawyers, civil servants and police. They also had extensive powers of inspection, search, seizure, and could summarily prosecute crime in their

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
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James Whidden

contradictory, it countered trends from the 1920s to diminish and mute the colonial profile by integration in the Egyptian elite and withdrawal from administrative roles. To some degree these changes were an attempt to restore colonial relationships damaged by the war or efforts to return to an idyll; however, they also represented a step forwards. Yet, a toxic combination of racism and security priorities

in Egypt
Raluca Radulescu and Alison Truelove

and romances in guiding their behaviour. These chapters equally acknowledge that gentility was not defined by precise criteria but rather by a looser set of evolving codes of behaviour. Peter Fleming’s Chapter 3 builds on Keen and Maddern’s explorations of the development of the gentry by concentrating on those administrative roles identified as increasingly important in the definition of the group

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Joe McGrath

prosecute summary offences in the Companies Acts. Even then, this power was restricted to a small number of filing offences. Though its prosecutorial ambit subsequently grew slightly, it could only prosecute a small fraction of the hundreds of offences in the Companies Acts so it continued to perform a largely administrative role (Cahill, 2008: 545–9; McDowell, 1998: para. 2.9). Policing, prosecution and punishment 77 Similarly, the Central Bank was not able to prosecute summary offences until it was empowered to do so by section 59 of the Central Bank Act 1971. For

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
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Higher standards, lower credibility?
David Hine and Gillian Peele

even though much of the administrative difficulty the SBE faced in the early years was generated by inadequate legislative follow-up by government. Eventually the Board paid the price, first by being stripped (by statute) of many of its functions, secondly by exile to Manchester, and finally by abolition. Independence is especially difficult to balance with accountability whenever the administrative roles of the agency in question are extensive 300 The regulation of standards in British public life and potentially controversial, as with IPSA. As we saw in Chapter

in The regulation of standards in British public life
Critical pedagogy in the community
Tom Woodin

executive committee, particularly in dealing with funders, the media and on foreign visits. Around the year 2000, a few people complained to me of his ‘chief executive’ status although most welcomed the active administrative role. But in 2007, with the disappearance of tens of thousands of pounds, he was dismissed. The Fed lost its Arts Council grant and reverted back to a more informal body. 152 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century Handling contradictions The pressures encountered by radical practices did not undermine the entire

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
Ilan Danjoux

was anything but temporary began to change as Arab leaders grew more belligerent against the Jewish state and Israelis became more comfortable with its administrative role over the new lands. In contrast to Israeli expectations that their victory would force Arab states to accept the country’s presence in the region, Arab states emphatically announced their rejection of diplomacy with Israel in the

in Political cartoons and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Susan M. Johns

patronage gave them a public role which was considerably magnified if the woman was an heiress or a widow. Women generally did not hold formal public office: such roles as chamberlain, mayor, juror, sheriff or other administrative roles, as they developed, were gendered male in twelfth-century England. There is, however, evidence to suggest that at least one noble household, that of Matilda de Percy countess of Warwick, had a female official employed as a chamberlain. The language used within the charter which suggests that a female chamberlainship existed is precise

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm