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After many years at the margins of historical investigation, the late medieval English gentry are widely regarded as an important and worthy subject for academic research. This book aims to explore the culture of the wide range of people whom we might include within the late medieval gentry, taking in all of landed society below the peerage, from knights down to gentlemen, and including those aspirants to gentility who might under traditional socio-economic terms be excluded from the group. It begins by exploring the origins of, and influences on, the culture of the late medieval gentry, thus contributing to the ongoing debate on defining the membership of this group. The book considers the gentry's emergence as a group distinct from the nobility, and looks at the various available routes to gentility. Through surveys of the gentry's military background, administrative and political roles, social behaviour, and education, it seeks to provide an overview of how the group's culture evolved, and how it was disseminated. The book offers a broad view of late medieval gentry culture, which explores, reassesses and indeed sometimes even challenges the idea that members of the gentry cultivated their own distinctive cultural identity. The evolution of the gentleman as a peer-assessed phenomenon, gentlemanly behaviour within the chivalric tradition, the education received by gentle children, and the surviving gentry correspondence are also discussed. Although the Church had an ambivalent attitude toward artistic expression, much of the gentry's involvement with the visual arts was religious in focus.

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The rules of political struggle
Christian Lo

administrators in policy processes. As discussed in Chapter 4 , my perspective emphasizes that municipal policy development happens in a dialectic process between local politicians and administrators, thus recognizing administrators as political actors and bureaucratic organizations as political arenas. This chapter elaborates on the dialectic relationship between political and administrative roles and argues that the normative rules guiding these roles are essential to an understanding of how municipal policy development unfolds and, thus, to an understanding of the

in When politics meets bureaucracy
Tales of municipal entrepreneurship
Christian Lo

administrative role, thereby bringing the corruptible personal being, burdened by personal loyalties and conflicts, into office. By having its main protagonist suffer the loss of political legitimacy (which is likely to happen if the administrative entrepreneur does not abstain from political fights), the policy process will, itself, ultimately be prone to failure. Rather than singlehandedly introducing a controversial political fight, the administrative entrepreneur must, therefore, ensure that someone else introduces the fight, or at least somehow obscures its origins

in When politics meets bureaucracy
Philomena Gorey

This chapter explores the limited evidence that survives from early modern Ireland relating to the licensing and regulation of midwifery, both by the Catholic and Protestant churches and by the Dublin College of Physicians. It situates episcopal regulation in the context of the churches’ wider administrative roles in society. It also relates Catholic and Protestant practice to concerns around the proper performance of baptism. The process whereby the College of Physicians very gradually became active in regulating midwifery is also reconstructed.

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
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Resisting racism in times of national security
Editor: Asim Qureshi

In times of national security, scholars and activists who hail from the communities under suspicion attempt to draw readers and listeners to the complexity of the world we inhabit. For those who campaigned against the SUS law in the 1980s, when young Black men were being routinely stopped in the streets, the wave of counter-terrorism legislation and policy that exists today will be very familiar. Similarly, recent discussions about the impact of drill music in the culture of young Black men has drawn questions around the ways in which they should be securitised, with senior police calling for the use of terrorism legislation against them. In this environment, when those who study and have lived alongside the communities who are at the scrutiny of the state raise questions about the government, military and police policy, they are often shut down as terrorist-sympathisers, or apologists for gang culture. In such environments, there is an expectation on scholars and activists to condemn what society at large fears. This volume is about how that expectation has emerged alongside the normalisation of racism, and how these writers choose to subvert the expectations raised on them, as part of their commitment to anti-racism.

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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

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Christian Lo

policy processes. These accounts demonstrate how policy development is enacted in a dialectic interplay between political and administrative roles both within and beyond the borders of the formal organization. The relationship between politics and administration, as understood by my informants, strongly echoed the classical Weberian notion of a hierarchal relation in which the bureaucratic occupational ethos is defined in opposition to the role of the politician. Moreover, the normative emphasis placed on acting in accordance with the political and administrative roles

in When politics meets bureaucracy
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James Whidden

contradictory, it countered trends from the 1920s to diminish and mute the colonial profile by integration in the Egyptian elite and withdrawal from administrative roles. To some degree these changes were an attempt to restore colonial relationships damaged by the war or efforts to return to an idyll; however, they also represented a step forwards. Yet, a toxic combination of racism and security priorities

in Egypt
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Joe McGrath

agencies existed, they mostly played an ancillary or administrative role and were also so under-resourced as to be ineffective. Since the 1990s, however, numerous specialist agencies were established to police corporate elites. Though resourcing continued to be an issue in some respects, these agencies were better staffed and resourced than ever. Moreover, these agencies were interdisciplinary in nature, staffed by accountants, lawyers, civil servants and police. They also had extensive powers of inspection, search, seizure, and could summarily prosecute crime in their

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
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Between government and governance
Christian Lo

municipalities’ citizens. In other words, a mix of traditions seemed to inform the political and administrative roles. The point here is, however, not to replace the transformation thesis with the notion of an alternative transformation from governance to government. Rather, my intention here is, first, to provide a warning against uncritically transporting theoretical conceptualizations as comprehensive explanatory devices across contexts. While the concepts of government and governance may prove useful as analytical tools across different contexts, their

in When politics meets bureaucracy