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Transnational activism and state power in China
Author: Stephen Noakes

The tale of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) is typically one of non-state actors reshaping world politics through the power of persuasion and principled ideas. This book is about the unromantic and often uncomfortable realities of transnational advocacy in a strong authoritarian state and rising world power. Drawing together case studies that span a range of issues, repertoires, and results of advocacy, it elaborates the constitutive role of the state in contemporary transnational activism. Because transnational networks are significant globally and domestically, the book speaks to students of comparative and international politics, bridging what is treated here as a superficial divide between the sub-fields. It discusses the campaigns around justice for Falun Gong and the strengthening of intellectual property rights in China. The book then traces the campaign around HIV/AIDS treatment, and the effort to abolish capital punishment in China. In the campaign for Tibetan independence, Chinese intransigence on the matter of national sovereignty for Tibet produced a split within the TAN. The book argues that that TANs can be effective when a legitimacy-seeking state deems the adoption of new policy positions in a given issue area to be critical for the preservation of its own moral authority and power monopoly. The key to working more effectively in China, therefore, is to recognize the source of Chinese Communist Party legitimacy and the connectedness of an issue to it. Those wishing to approach China recognize and take seriously the Chinese power to shape global issues and campaigns in support of them.

The ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns
Stephen Noakes

104 4 State-​directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns T here is yet a third model of advocacy arising from global engagement with China, one in which target state preferences not only shape the results of individual campaigns, but also their ideological core. I  call this metamorphosis of principles ‘advocacy drift’. It is exemplified by the campaigns around global warming and Tibetan independence, their varied ‘results’ notwithstanding. As with the ‘natural cases’ explored in chapter two, these campaigns show

in The advocacy trap
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The superpower’s dilemma: to appease, repress, or transform transnational advocacy networks?
Stephen Noakes

1 Introduction The superpower’s dilemma: to appease, repress, or transform transnational advocacy networks? T he tale of transnational advocacy networks (TANs), as told by students of international politics, is typically one of non-​state actors reshaping world politics through the power of persuasion and principled ideas. In its most familiar telling, global partnerships of activists, non-​governmental organizations (NGOs), scientists, and technical experts play the foil to unrestrained national interests, developing, diffusing, and monitoring compliance

in The advocacy trap
When and how are advocacy campaigns effective?
Stephen Noakes

17 1 Mechanisms of persuasion: when and how are advocacy campaigns effective? A t their most elemental, transnational networks are norm-​based. Shared values or principles are the glue that holds them together (Keck and Sikkink, 1998:  3). As Peter Katzenstein explains, ‘norms operate like rules that define the identity of an actor, thus having “constitutive effects” that specify what actions will cause relevant others to recognize a particular identity’ (Katzenstein, 1996: 5). Issue-​based campaigns may serve as mechanisms of persuasion, but it is collective

in The advocacy trap
How state preferences influence campaign forms
Stephen Noakes

136 5 Strategic considerations, tough choices: how state preferences influence campaign forms T ransnational advocacy campaigns come in a variety of forms and produce a variety of results. The purpose of this chapter is to enumerate some of the reasons why, drawing on the case studies of the preceding chapters to deduce some patterns or trends across issue areas in China. Given the prevalence of state preferences in the results and functional forms of campaigns explored, it falls upon this chapter to also examine the character and origins of those preferences

in The advocacy trap
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State power as reality
Stephen Noakes

experience. On the other hand, the book has highlighted many more examples of China’s ability to shape the way transnational advocacy is done, whether by creating new windows of opportunity to float expert advice, partner with official agencies, or by drastically altering the long-​standing and deeply held values that motivated the initial formation of an advocacy campaign. Playing by China’s rules I have argued that forces that lie outside their control shape TAN campaigns, including the preferences of the very states they seek to change. Taking states seriously does not

in The advocacy trap
The ‘natural cases’ of the campaigns for Falun Gong and IPR protection
Stephen Noakes

38 2 The power of state preferences: the ‘natural cases’ of the campaigns for Falun Gong and IPR protection D ifferent advocacy campaigns achieve different results and take different functional forms. Those explored in this chapter were chosen precisely because they differ radically in terms of the reception each has met from the Chinese government, and the results they produced –​one was embraced by the state while the other was wholly rejected. In the case of the campaign mounted by Falun Gong and its supporters against the state for its own campaign to

in The advocacy trap
Intercessory advocacy and causal process in the HIV/ AIDS treatment and death penalty abolitionist campaigns
Stephen Noakes

70 3 Reading the ‘lay of the land’: intercessory advocacy and causal process in the HIV/​AIDS treatment and death penalty abolitionist campaigns T he ‘critical’ causal pattern demonstrated by the IPR and Falun Gong campaigns is only one of many functional forms taken by TAN campaigns in China. This chapter explores another pathway, that of intercessory advocacy for qualitative changes in the content or implementation of policies already decided upon. The campaigns explored here are those concerning the development of China’s HIV/​AIDS treatment regime and

in The advocacy trap
Kate McLuskie and Kate Rumbold

wherever it was to be found. The seminar participants’ responses demonstrated an important distinction between advocacy and analysis. Their advocacy for the value of culture offered a post hoc justification for their existing enthusiasm rather than an a priori analysis of culture that called into question its definitions or addressed the process of assigning value in

in Cultural value in twenty-first-century England
Jonathan J. Pierce and Katherine C. Hicks

The advocacy coalition framework (ACF) is an actor-specific theory of the policy process. The unit of analysis is the policy subsystem, within which advocacy coalitions compete to translate their beliefs into public policy. The framework is based on a series of assumptions at the systemic, meso-, and individual levels of analysis (Sabatier and Weible 2007 ), and identifies three theories: advocacy coalitions, policy learning, and policy change (Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith 1999 ; Jenkins-Smith et al. 2014 ). The framework has been applied hundreds of times

in Foreign policy as public policy?