Third edition
Author: Leslie C. Green

It has been accepted since antiquity that some restraint should be observed during armed conflict. This book examines the apparent dichotomy and introduces any study of the law of armed conflict by considering the nature and legality of war. The purpose of what is known as the law of armed conflict or, more commonly, the law of war is to reduce the horrors inherent therein to the greatest extent possible, bearing in mind the political purpose for which the war is fought, namely to achieve one's policies over one's enemies. The discussion on the history and sources of the law of armed conflict pays most attention to warfare on land because that is the region for which most agreements have been drawn up, although attention has been accorded to both aerial and naval warfare where it has been considered necessary. Traditionally, international law was divided into the law of war and the law of peace, with no intermediate stage between. Although diplomatic relations between belligerents are normally severed once a conflict has commenced, there remain a number of issues, not all of which are concerned with their inter-belligerent relations, which require them to remain in contact. War crimes are violations of the and customs of the law of armed conflict and are punishable whether committed by combatants or civilians, including the nationals of neutral states. The book also talks about the rights and duties of the Occupying Power, civil defence, branches of international law and prisoners of war.

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The disposal of the war’s dead
Lucy Noakes

continue, no provision had been made for the burial costs of either Civil Defence volunteers or other civilians dying as a result of war operations.9 Civil servants were coming to realise that, in the age of aerial warfare, the bereaved whose loved ones had died as civilians might well feel that they had cause to expect both financial and practical help from the state with their burial. As discussed in Chapter 3, in planning for the devastation that it was widely anticipated aerial warfare would bring, the secret Interdepartmental Burials (Civilians) Committee assumed

in Dying for the nation
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Imagining and planning for death in wartime
Lucy Noakes

of warfare, aerial warfare was to become the most significant, and most destructive by far of both human lives and the communities and landscapes within which these were lived. The development of the aircraft did more than anything else to damage the long-cherished British belief that being an ‘island nation’ with a powerful navy provided an adequate defence against invasion and destruction. The use of bombardment from air and sea against troops and civilians during the Great War meant that Britain was newly vulnerable to what became widely known as ‘the knockout

in Dying for the nation
Leslie C. Green

practical, they apply to aerial warfare too. 2 The Hague Rules of Air Warfare adopted by a Commission of Jurists in 1923 3 have never been embodied in a treaty, or officially declared to constitute a statement of the law. However, it is generally agreed that they do in fact constitute rules of customary law relating to air warfare. 4 In addition, Protocol I, 1977, for the first time establishes a number of rules

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
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The future of cities and the future of war
Adam Page

establishment of the Air Raid Precautions Department within the Home Office in 1935, it unites military, planning and architectural visions of urban areas to elucidate how aerial warfare and the urban environment were drawn together within broader cultures of anxiety. It discusses the development of military theories of strategic bombing and then draws links to characterisations of urban environments and their inhabitants, which were central to architectural and planning debates. Aviation and cities were key markers of modernity which simultaneously promised spectacular

in Architectures of survival
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Exquisite corpses
Elza Adamowicz

in Dada historiography, to reassess the contribution of women to this Luddite revolutionary movement, and to foreground its continuing impact on contemporary artists. Notes 1. See analysis by Iris Müller-Westermann (2008). 2. As Ludger Derenthal (2004: 20) has suggested, Ernst recycled the photograph of a biplane from a wartime publication used as propaganda material for German aerial warfare in a shift from cockpit to coffin, with the aim of exposing the destruction of human lives by modern technology in the First World War. 3. Interview with Sadie Murdoch on

in Dada bodies
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Otto Lehmann-Russbueldt and German rearmament
Charmian Brinson and Richard Dove

[TNA], KV2/2001–6. The National Peace Council later appealed for support for his work. 3 Otto Lehmann-Russbueldt [O.L-R], ‘Lebenserinnerungen’, unpublished typescript, dated London 1940, held by his daughter, Yvonne Wells, p. 119. 4 See ‘Aerial Warfare. Secret German Plans’, The Nineteenth Century and After, July 1934; see also Daily Herald, 28 June 1934. Copies of both articles are in Lehmann-Russbueldt’s security file. 5 SIS (Valentine Vivian) to MI5 (Capt. Miller), 6 April 1934, headed ‘Otto Lehmann-Russbueldt, 3 Regent Square, WC 1’, TNA, KV2/2001/1a. 6 MI5 to MI

in A matter of intelligence
Leslie C. Green

. Although it is an unofficial statement, it is generally regarded as expressive of accepted customary law. War in the air At the time of the Hague Conferences it was not appreciated that aerial warfare might be of major significance. In fact, the only reference to this type of activity is in the Declaration concerning

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
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Their commencement, effects and termination
Leslie C. Green

not have any effect on the right of a belligerent to seize enemy or neutral merchant vessels in its ports at the outbreak of hostilities. There are no clearly established rules relating to the conduct of aerial warfare 70 or to the obligations or rights of belligerents with reference to civil aircraft belonging to enemy nationals and present in the territory of the adverse party. The only

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
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War without limits
Adam Page

historical analysis of how cities came to be pictured beneath bombsights, of how the theories, techniques and technologies of aerial warfare recast urban areas, can attempt to break out of the stupefying horror of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Tokyo, Dresden, Hamburg, Berlin, London, Coventry, Warsaw, Rotterdam and the many other cities whose signifiers were mutilated by bombing. As Ken Ruthven wrote of Hiroshima, ‘the name no longer belongs to the city but to its destruction’.12 This study has sought to illuminate and challenge how cities and civilians were remade through their

in Architectures of survival