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What rough beast?
Series: Irish Society

This book explores the issue of a collective representation of Ireland after the sudden death of the 'Celtic Tiger' and introduces the aesthetic idea that runs throughout. The focus is on the idea articulated by W. B. Yeats in his famous poem 'The Second Coming'. The book also explores the symbolic order and imaginative structure, the meanings and values associated with house and home, the haunted houses of Ireland's 'ghost estates' and the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household. It examines the sophisticated financial instruments derived from mortgage-backed securities that were a lynchpin of global financialization and the epicentre of the crash, the question of the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household of Europe. A story about fundamental values and principles of fairness and justice is discussed, in particular, the contemporary conflict that reiterates the ancient Irish mythic story of the Tain. The book suggests correspondences between Plato's Republic and the Irish republic in the deformations and devolution of democracy into tyranny. It traces a red thread from the predicament of the ancient Athenians to contemporary Ireland in terms of the need to govern pleonexia, appetites without limits. The political and economic policies and practices of Irish development, the designation of Ireland's 'tax free zones', are also discussed. Finally, the ideal type of person who has been emerging under the auspices of the neoliberal revolution is imagined.

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Steven Earnshaw

novelistic trade – language, narrative, characterisation, role of the narrator, the management of linear time – started to move novels and other art forms away from accessible, representational social art into one interested in art itself, and modes such as expressionism took elements of Realism to non-realist conclusions and realisations. I will look first at a novel which is predominantly in a Realist vein, as we have come to expect, yet which also shows signs of dissatisfaction with Realism and the aesthetic ideas which inform it, and then move on to an example of

in Beginning realism
Abstract only
Series: Beginnings

Terms used to describe artistic practices have different meanings from their common usage, but 'realism' as an aesthetic idea cannot be too far removed from the way we would talk about something 'real'. This book explores the artistry and aesthetics of realist literature, along with the assumptions of realist literature. It examines the different ways in which theorists, critics and philosophers conceptualise 'realism'. The book argues that a 'realist' sensibility is the ground on which other modes of literature often exist. It considers verisimilitude that is associated with the complexity of realism, describing the use of realism in two ways: capital 'R' and small 'r'. A set of realist novels is used to explore preliminary definition of realism. The STOP and THINK section lists some points to consider when thinking about realist works. The book looks at the characteristics of the Realist novel. It deals with the objections raised in discussions of Realism, from the Realist period and twentieth- and twenty-first century criticisms. The book provides information on the novel genre, language that characterises Realism, and selection of novel material. It looks at crucial elements such as stage design, and a technical feature often overlooked, the aside, something which seems non-realistic, and which might offer another view on Realism. The book talks about some writers who straddled both periods from the 1880s and 1890s onwards, until the 1920s/1930s, gradually moved away from Realism to modernism. Literary realism, and Aristotle's and Plato's works in relation to realism are also discussed.

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Christian Kravagna

The introduction explicates the concept of the transmodern as designation of a decolonial force within modernity and modernism. In the first half of the twentieth century, transcultural encounters between artists and authors of various origins took place in the (former) colonies and in Western metropolitan centres giving rise to alternative forms of modern art. These manifestations of the transmodern, emerging from relationships of exchange, collaboration, and coalition building, resulted in the mutual transformation of artistic concepts and aesthetic ideas. The introduction proposes the motif of contact for the methodological orientation in the elaboration of a postcolonial art history of global modernism. It argues for the necessity to situate articulations of transmodern art in the political context of anti-colonial movements and in relation to early stages of thinking the transcultural in anthropology, sociology, and philosophy. Exploring artistically and politically motivated encounters across the colonial borders helps to overcome the false dichotomy of Western and non-Western art histories. The distinct art historical approach of this book is discussed in relation to notions of ‘postcolonial modernism’ (Chika Okeke-Agulu), ‘decentering modernism’ (Partha Mitter) and ‘cosmopolitan modernism’ (Kobena Mercer) that have shaped the debate about art history after Eurocentrism.

in Transmodern
From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

Gary Banham

is based on the possession of ‘spirit’ (Geist). Kant terms this ‘the animating principle in the mind’ and states that it is ‘the ability to exhibit aesthetic ideas’.20 An aesthetic idea is a presentation to which no concept is adequate, ‘so that no language can express it completely and allow us to grasp it’ or, in other terms, an intuition that exceeds the powers of a concept to govern it through the rules of understanding (which is why Kant also terms this type of idea a presentation ‘of the imagination’).21 This involves a relation to the understanding, but one

in The new aestheticism
Andrew Bowie

the realm of the supersensuous, into our sensuous relations to the world. The very fact that Kant now begins to use the term ‘aesthetic ideas’ suggests how far he has moved beyond key restrictions in the CPR. The ‘Aesthetic’ there provided the ‘rules of sensuousness’, which constituted the framework for the intuitions judged by the understanding. ‘Ideas’ were the basis of reason’s attempts to unify the endless diversity of the products of the understanding into a whole, and could not be available to intuition because they would then have to be objects of the

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Screenwriting from notebooks to screenplays
Anna Soa Rossholm

, and Federico Fellini, Bergman did not prepare his films from images, but almost exclusively from words. There are sometimes doodles in the notebook margins, however, and here and there one also finds more conscious non-verbal expressions that become part of the creative process. For instance, one of Bergman’s notebooks contains a line that extends across a sheet of paper and is entitled ‘Exercise in Simplicity’. In this example, the seemingly irrelevant becomes a conscious method for developing aesthetic ideas beyond

in Ingmar Bergman
Hélène Ibata

’s Paradise Lost a perfect illustration of stylistic indeterminacy in poetry, although –​significantly –​his chosen passage is an example of the beautiful, rather than the sublime descriptions of Death and Satan discussed by Burke. Whereas the latter praises the ‘expressive uncertainty of strokes and colouring’ in ‘the portrait of the king of terrors’,65 Reynolds chooses to mention ‘the beauty of the celebrated description of Eve in Milton’s Paradise Lost’. The arguments used by Reynolds reveal an undeniable familiarity with the new aesthetic ideas introduced by the Enquiry

in The challenge of the sublime
Michael O’Sullivan

is towards the end of The Critique of the Power of Judgment. Kant’s use of the term humanities is related to the sense of universality that he believes is important for understanding the ‘beautiful’ and ‘aesthetical ideas’ (in Weber, 1987:151): The propadeutic to all beautiful art, in respect to the highest degree of its perfection, seems to lie not in precepts, but in the cultivation of those spiritual powers (in der Kultur der Gemütskräfte) by means of the pre-cognitions (Vorkenntnisse) called the humanities (Humaniora): presumably because humanity signifies on

in The humanities and the Irish university