Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods
during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Ruba al Akash
Dey de Pryck ,
( 2015 ), ‘ Does the Feminisation of
AgriculturalLabour Empower Women? Insights from Female Labour Contractors
and Workers in Northwest Syria ’, Journal of
International Development , 27 : 7 ,
898 – 916
The Welsh borderlands were a distinctive territory where two peoples came together throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. It was here that men skilled at law drew up the Dunsate Agreement, to solve the impending problems with cattle theft. This book explores what sets the Dunsate Agreement apart from other Anglo-Saxon law codes grappling with cattle theft, highlighting that creators of this document, and the community that it concerns, included both Anglo-Saxons and Welsh. It argues that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle represents the military culture of the Welsh borderlands in a distinctive way which aligns its inhabitants with outlaws. The book articulates a discernible culture in the Welsh borderlands prior to 1066. Bede's The Historia Ecclesiastica has long been interpreted as a narrative of Anglo/British strife. His rancour towards the pagan Mercians provides substantial information about the life of Penda of Mercia, whose entire reign over this borderlands kingdom was defined by consistent political and military unity with Welsh rulers. Expanding on the mixed culture, the book examines the various Latin and Old English Lives of the popular Anglo-Saxon saint, Guthlac of Crowland. Vernacular literary tradition reveals a group of Old English riddles that link the 'dark Welsh' to agricultural labour through the cattle they herd, and who have long been understood to show the Welsh as slaves. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is frequently cited as a paradigm of Anglo/Welsh antagonism. The book reveals that the impact of the Norman Conquest on the Anglo-Welsh border region was much greater than previously realised.
-labouring class change.
Class relations have been analysed primarily in terms of changing
forms of domination and exploitation, and the ways in which they are
mediated by forms of collective action and the state. As the bases of
classes of labour’s reproduction and patterns of capitalist accumulation are modified, so too are the ways in which labour is controlled and
is able to seek concessions from capital and the state. Differences have
been shown between villages where classes of labour are integrated into
non-agriculturallabour markets as commuters to nearby cities, or as
Decolonising the Hajj details the transformation of the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) from Nigeria over the course of the twentieth century. What for centuries had been a long, perilous overland journey from which many never returned became a short, highly regulated airlift to and from Saudi Arabia by the early 1960s. The book argues that British colonial efforts to control the pilgrimage were minimalist in nature, largely centred on funnelling pilgrims toward agricultural labour in Sudan and repatriating destitute pilgrims from the Hijaz in ways that generally preserved the traditional overland pilgrimage. More significant transformations occurred in the context of decolonisation, when Nigerian nationalist politicians took over the internal mechanisms of the state at the same time that the European imperial order was unravelling globally. The outcome was a more proactive approach to pilgrimage management that slowly but surely directed the pilgrim traffic away from the overland routes and toward air travel as the most politically, economically, and diplomatically expedient way to conduct the Hajj in a post-colonial world of independent nation-states. In charting this trajectory in the specific context of Nigeria, the book demonstrates the importance of decolonisation as a transformational force in the history of the Hajj while simultaneously situating the Hajj as a valuable case study for examining transnational implications of global decolonisation.
This chapter examines work and its uses – therapeutic, punitive and productive - in the Irish District Asylum system in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Through a number of case studies, the chapter discusses the utilisation of work in a number of asylum settings, and evaluates its usage for specific patient cohorts. Labour, paid or unpaid, served several purposes within Irish institutions, and its status as well as the manner in which it was assigned changed, depending upon the individual patient. Indoor work was prized over outdoor agricultural labour, and an informal hierarchy of roles developed within the asylum, with often intense competition for especially valued occupations such as support for asylum staff. While the asylum physician frequently used a willingness to work as a test of sanity, it was also often embraced by patients themselves as a means of re-establishing a connection to their former life in the outside world, affirming their identity as a coherent, productive individual. The chapter also examines those who did not, or could not, work, and assesses the criteria applied by medical and nursing staff to determine whether any patient should be compelled to labour for their keep.
Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
agriculturallabour remained predominantly family-sourced, comprising
women who were often contributing already to food production and therefore unlikely to supplement existing resources.
Consequently, the initial period of conscription witnessed the greatest
sustained pressure upon the agriculturallabour supply without, as yet, any
adequate system of substitution to ameliorate manpower losses. How did
the Tribunals respond to this dilemma? As in other matters, empathy was
an important factor. An amenable Tribunal such as Hardingstone would
2009; Hard News n.d.).
Less direct strategies include those discussed in Chapter 4 as broader
responses to the growth of non-agriculturallabour, such as reducing
the need for labour-power by mechanising production, shifting to less
labour-intensive cropping patterns, bringing in labour from other areas
or disciplining it by reinforcing debt-related ties.
Less antagonistic ways of protecting control over labour include timing NREGS works during the agricultural slack season, or restricting
them to mornings so that labourers are available for agricultural work in
per cent of more than 600 labouring class households surveyed in 2013–14 primarily made a living through informal wage-labour
in agriculture, construction and industry.3 They are, though, integrated
into non-agriculturallabour markets in markedly different ways. The
rural capitalists, with whom they share their villages, also accumulate in
different ways, which has implications for how and where labour works
and lives, and the forms of control it endures.
A number of other variables including caste and political dynamics are interwoven with these patterns of