John Evelyn’s Kalendarium and the public diary tradition
scientific principle of analogy, in other words, rather than the
theological concept of biblical typology, as a means of
understanding the past. By seeking to order and communicate his
experiences through a particular analogy or set of analogies rather
than through the relation of specific example to general type, the
secular diarist could use the rhetoric of comparison to highlight
Perception and analogy explores ways of seeing scientifically in the eighteenth century. It discusses literary, theological, and didactic texts alongside popular works on astronomy, optics, ophthalmology, and the body to demonstrate how readers are prompted to take on a range of perspectives in their acquisition of scientific knowledge. With reference to topics from colour perception to cataract surgery, the book examines how sensory experience was conceptualised during the eighteenth century. It argues that by paying attention to the period’s documentation of perception as an embodied phenomenon we can better understand the creative methods employed by disseminators of diverse natural philosophical ideas. This book argues for the central role of analogy in conceptualising and explaining new scientific ideas. It centres on religious and topographical poetry by writers including James Thomson, Richard Blackmore, Mark Akenside, Henry Brooke, David Mallet, Elizabeth Carter, and Christopher Smart. Together with its readings of popular educational dialogues on scientific topics, the book also addresses how this analogical approach is reflected in material culture through objects – such as orreries, camera obscuras, and Aeolian harps – that facilitate acts of perception and tactile engagement within polite spaces. The book shows how scientific concepts become intertwined with Christian discourse through reinterpretations of origins and signs, the scope of the created universe, and the limits of embodied knowledge.
Numinous Spaces in Gothic, Horror and Science Fiction
This article elucidates an aspect of the formal use Gothic fiction makes of space. It begins by exploring the complex and confusing area in between spaces; after discussing examples of spatial ambiguity from several genres, and briefly outlining some narrative ‘geometries’ employed by Gothic fiction, the article concentrates on a segment from Ann Radcliffe‘s The Italian in order to show how precisely the use of thresholds can elicit numinous terror, and so, in what way the threshold is vital to the construction of Gothic narratives. The discussion of Gothic spaces is rounded off with a close analogy from the field of contemporary mathematics which clarifies Gothic liminalization techniques.
Toleration, Supersessionism and Judaeo-Centric Eschatology
This article on an early modern pamphlet which can be found in the John Rylands Library Special Collections asserts the importance of John Goodwin’s analysis of Zechariah 13:3 in A Post-Script or Appendix to […] Hagiomastix (1647). I argue that this pamphlet’s significance is not only its emphasis on toleration, but also that it is a striking example of Judaeo-centric millenarian thought in which Zechariah 12–14 is understood as prophesying a future time in which the Jews will be restored to the Land of Israel. I also analyse the pamphlet’s relationship to supersessionism and compare Goodwin’s interpretation with those of Samuel Rutherford, William Prynne, John Owen and, in particular, Jean Calvin. I explain that Goodwin’s use of the analogy of Scripture hermeneutic helps to explain his belief in Judaeo-centric eschatology. I then show how one of Goodwin’s followers, Daniel Taylor, used Judaeo-centric biblical exegesis to petition Oliver Cromwell for Jewish readmission to England.
A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
of space, or spaces, humanitarian innovation is thought to occupy – how the different authors in the Issue consider these and what this means in practice for the humanitarian sector – is perhaps a useful approach to explore.
I begin this response with the space from which there’s no escape: humanitarian innovation as a ‘Black Hole’ (Currion, Innovation Issue). I then propose an alternative analogy, to instead redirect attention to where we might want humanitarian innovation to ‘go’. Humanitarian innovation can also be repositioned at the centre of humanitarian
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
( Mathys, 2017 ). As Pottier (2006 : 151) describes, humanitarians could not ‘shed their ethnic identities: instead they accept that a perceived ethnic identity brings strategic advantages, as well as disadvantages’. In short, local staff had meaningful perceived identities, and in times of tension, advised their colleagues on how to take these identities into account for the organisation’s advantage – another micro-practice of translation.
Luc, one experienced humanitarian, employed the following analogy: MSF already has the ‘lyrics’ – the humanitarian principles and
government in its propaganda argued that if Biafra succeeded, not only the rest of
Nigeria but other countries in Africa would also disintegrate along ethnic lines.
Although the Biafran secession was not an ethnic movement, many African leaders
seemed to have believed that hypothetical consequence to other African countries.
There was also this analogy that Biafra was another Katanga. The Katanga crisis had
happened at the beginning of the 1960s and was almost a
“redesigned” design process’ ( Negroponte, 2003 : 359). Defining Negroponte’s approach to programming was a
constructivist conception of learning by doing – the analogy being how a child is said to
learn. Not so much through formal teaching ‘but by interacting with the world, by having
certain results as a consequence of being able to ask for something, or being able to stand up
and reach it’ ( Negroponte, 2006 : 1-53)
– that is, through endless feedback loops of iterative environmental interaction
involving an automatic and continuous process of
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
( 2017 ), ‘ The Impact of Armed Conflict on
Displacement ’, report commissioned by
Concern Worldwide. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33905.94562/1 .
( forthcoming ), ‘ Unintended Consequences
of Adjacency Claims: The Function and Dysfunction of Analogies between
Refugee Protection and IDP Protection in the Work of
sweeping and insensitive to the physical violence that was a feature of historical
colonial practices. It can also be argued that the analogy is a bad fit because poor
people’s data generally have little commercial value. However, I am convinced
that the structural inequality and lack of choice underpinning the data extraction
involved in making humanitarian wearables and the type of ‘gift’
relationship wearables create make it imperative that aid wearables should be