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Ukrainian migrants in Poland
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

This chapter attempts to theorise flexible adaptation and complex settlement processes among migrants from Ukraine in Poland through the lens of the concept of anchoring. I argue that traditional categories such as ‘integration’, ‘assimilation’ or ‘settlement’ are not sufficient to capture the ways of functioning and experience of the Ukrainian migrants studied in Poland. A similar conclusion was drawn by Drbohlav and Dzurova ( 2007 ), who noted that the Ukrainian migrants they researched could be characterised by their specific transnational

in Rethinking settlement and integration
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

exclude those who had already been well established in the receiving societies through their spouses or partners. The interviewees had to be in their 30s and 40s and to have lived in the UK or Poland (respectively) for between one and ten years, based on the assumption that establishing anchors in a new country takes time, so it should not be examined too early, while at the same time the focus should be on intensive processes of anchoring, which can be particularly visible in the first years of migration. The interviewed migrants had to have been resident in Birmingham

in Rethinking settlement and integration
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Polish migrants in the UK
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

This chapter analyses the mechanisms of adaptation and settling among Polish migrants in the UK, where less circular migration was observed than in the case of Ukrainian migrants in Poland. Even though settlement processes remained more noticeable among the Poles than among the Ukrainians, they can still be better characterised in terms of anchoring rather than putting down roots. This may be linked, on the one hand, to a larger cultural and geographical distance between Poles and British society, and on the other hand to the situation at the

in Rethinking settlement and integration
From a metaphor through a sensitising concept to an empirically grounded concept
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

alternatives such as the metaphor of anchoring. The reason for this was that rooting implies a rather firm connection between individuals and a solid social ground, whereas anchoring helps to capture looser ties and different types of links (material, economic, legal, etc.). What struck me was that rootedness had not been extensively described or explained in the literature, in contrast to the notion of searching for one's own roots by contemporary individuals, but it had started to attract more academic attention as a result of the growing importance of the processes of

in Rethinking settlement and integration
The case for practice theory
Matthew Hanchard

7 Digital maps and anchored time: the case for practice theory Matthew Hanchard Introduction Digital maps are increasingly embedded within everyday practices, from choosing a holiday destination to gaining directions to a bar. As hypermediate and remediate forms (Bolter and Grusin, 2000), they are situated within a complex array of connected technologies: web mapping services output digital cartography via popular web map engines like Google and Bing Maps which, in turn, sit embedded on websites. Meanwhile, location-based services allow users to check in almost

in Time for mapping
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

This chapter aims to synthesise crucial points about anchoring which emerge from my research with Ukrainian migrants in Poland and Polish migrants in the UK, to develop a framework that allows for a better understanding of the processes of migrant adaptation and settling. In order to outline key elements useful for building a general model of migrants’ anchoring, it concentrates on commonalities observed across both groups, in contrast to the previous chapters, which focused on Ukrainian migrants in Poland and Polish migrants in the UK as

in Rethinking settlement and integration
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

Whereas the previous parts of the monograph focused on the positive functions of anchoring – that is, recovering the feeling of safety and stability – this chapter aims to discuss negative aspects of certain anchors that disadvantage migrants, producing insecurities and reinforcing exclusions. In contrast to the former chapter underlining migrants’ agency, this part concentrates on constraints and inequalities in the processes of anchoring. Aggravating and dysfunctional anchors producing insecurities The

in Rethinking settlement and integration
Migrants’ anchoring in an age of insecurity

This monograph argues that well-established concepts in migration studies such as ‘settlement’ and ‘integration’ do not sufficiently capture the features of adaptation and settling of contemporary migrants. Instead, it proposes the integrative and transdisciplinary concept of anchoring, linking the notions of identity, adaptation and settling while overcoming the limitations of the established concepts and underlining migrants’ efforts at recovering their feelings of security and stability. Drawing on 80 in-depth interviews with Polish migrants in the UK and Ukrainian migrants in Poland, ethnographic and autobiographical research together with an analysis of Internet blogs and forums, the book presents the author’s original concept of anchoring, underpinned by a combination of sociological and psychological perspectives, as well as demonstrating its applications. The book aims not only to provide a theoretical and methodological contribution to better understanding and examining the processes of adaptation and settling among today’s migrants, but also to highlight practical implications useful for the better support of individuals facing changes and challenges in new, complex and fluid societies.

Bombay and the Village in 1990s Women‘s Cinema
Rashmi Sawhney

This article examines the representation of Bombay in Aruna Raje‘s Rihaee (1988) and Sai Paranjpyes Disha (1990). It has been argued here that in both films, Bombay functions as a narrative anchor to the fictive village, which is depicted as the locus of Indian modernity. Symbolism of the village-city trope is used to reorganise the syntagm of modernity-location-gender in new relations of power and also to present alternative visions of national development within the socio-economic context of 1990s liberalisation in India. The dialectic between city and village in these films emphasises the role of memory and migration in women‘s cinema, and also serves as a means to probing the relationship between gender and films in the postcolonial context.

Film Studies
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Hawthorne, Ligotti, and the Absent Center of the Nation-State
Donald L. Anderson

Although composed before 9/11, Nathaniel Hawthorne‘s My Kinsman, Major Molineux and Thomas Ligotti‘s The Shadow at the Bottom of the World are both prescient in their critique of the impulse of American communities following 9/11 to monumentalise and concretise the nation-state and in particular the remains at Ground Zero. In this essay I discuss Ground Zero as a suggestive trope for the illusiveness of the nation as an imagined community. These complementary Gothic short stories operate as allegory and offer a way of reading how patriotic communities cohered around what remained at Ground Zero and (re)produced it as a site of patriotic performance. A new Gothic trait in our age of terror(ism) is the anxiety over the absence of a stable centre that anchors national continuity. This article places these short stories in conversation with Benedict Anderson,,Étienne Balibar and other theorists who engage critiques of nation-building in order to draw out what is Gothic about the nation-state and to further substantiate how 9/11 revealed the nation-state as a principally Gothic phenomenon.

Gothic Studies