Though the just war tradition has an ancient pedigree, like any tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the Crusades to the present day, this book explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. It focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledged and the dangers which an exaggerated view of the justice or moral worth of war poses are underlined. The adoption of a 'dispositional' view of ethical life, in which moral character and moral culture play a decisive part, widens and transforms the ethics of war. Realism resists the application of morality to war. Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. In opposition to the amoral and wholly pragmatic approach of the 'pure' realist, the just war theorist insists on the moral determination of war where that is possible, and on the moral renunciation of war where it is not. Moral realism is what the just war tradition purports to be about. Legitimate authority has become entirely subordinated to the concept of state sovereignty. If moderate forms of consequentialism threaten the principle of noncombatant immunity, more extreme or purer forms clearly undermine it. The strategic and the ethical problems of counterterrorism are compounded by the emergence of a new and more extreme form of terrorism.
British aristocracy were
landscaped according to the ‘Anglo-Chinese’ taste of natural wildness.11
Middle-class Britons decorated their houses with Chinese furniture and
Chinese wallpapers. Sir William Chambers published dissertations on
the beauties of Chinese gardens and Chinese architecture; as architect
to the future George III, he famously added a nine-storey pagoda to the
royal gardens at Kew.
As David Porter argues, it was ultimately the long-standing prestige of
imperial China – founded on an ancientpedigree that validated Chinese
Introduction to the second edition:
Just war, past and present
Introduction to the second edition
Though the just war tradition has an ancientpedigree, like any
tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. After
a lengthy period of relative stagnation, the tradition is enjoying
a major revival, generating a substantial literature and establishing a virtual monopoly over ethical thinking about war. However,
its present hegemony is not of a dogmatic and uncontested kind.
On the contrary, those at the forefront of contemporary just war
cultural differences dividing it into haves and have-nots. To ensure that royal aid went only to those who needed and deserved it, all prospective students first had to furnish proof of four generations of noble descent, a requirement intended to guarantee that their nobility did not derive from recent venal ennoblement. 25 But ancientpedigree alone was not enough to enter the Ecole. Applicants were also ranked on an eight-tiered scale which gave preference to the sons of officers who had sacrificed life, limb, and fortune in the king’s service. 26 This
‘Numbers games’ and ‘holocausts’ at Jasenovac and Bleiburg
David Bruce MacDonald
, Tudjman’s Jasenovac numbers were not unduly controversial
when compared to other revisionist numbers. More problematic was his application of ‘Tudjmanism’ to other periods of history, as part of a larger project to
relativise the Ustaša genocide. A section of his book was devoted to violence,
traced back for as long as humanity ‘has been aware of its own existence’.
Genocide also had an ancientpedigree, having existed ‘since the dawn of our
primitive prehistory’.41 History according to Tudjman was a never-ending
series of violent conflicts and wars, beginning with Old
show in the 1870s, although he traced the breed to an ancient race of dogs. In the case of Irish water spaniels and Kerry Beagles, Scharff compared characteristics of the modern show variety to those of possible ancestors found in medieval records. While tracing ancientpedigrees of Irish dogs, Scharff accepted the dog-show definition of each breed. 26
Dog shows permanently altered the appearance of Irish dogs. For example, Irish dog breeders rapidly eliminated colour variety among setters. By 1866, patches of white or black were out of fashion. Harry Blake Knox, a
baroque, a previous age of power and confidence. In true
conservative manner the creators of the Trocadéro reassured
themselves of French standing by resorting to a distant and glorious
past. It did its job well, for no innocent by-stander on the Chaillot
Hill could have doubted they were in a country of importance and wealth.
The literature surrounding the building dwelt on the ancientpedigree of
Thomas Watson, Christopher Marlowe, Richard Barnfield
Proceedings of the American Philological Association , 71
Always with a caveat about its ancientpedigree.
See Donno, Elizabethan Minor Epics , p. 6; Clark, Amorous
Rites , pp. xxvii, l; William Keach, Elizabethan Erotic
Narratives: Irony and Pathos in the Ovidian Poetry of
Ben Jonson’s admiration for Southwell’s ‘burning Babe’
emotional honesty and imaginative
efficacy could be a powerful poet indeed.
Southwell was also being trained to see the benefits of
simplified pedagogical strategies to involve hearts and minds as widely
as possible in this new vision of Christian piety, to accommodate
himself to his actual audience. Catechesis, an interactive teaching tool
of ancientpedigree, was being further developed on far
our lord! We are all your children and we thank you for
your kindness toward us!
Then the lord of
Gruuthuse, at the duke’s command, replied, saying:
Gentlemen, behold your
prince, your natural lord by ancientpedigree: not by
acquisition, by purchase or through tyranny, but your