2 Antecedents to the absurd only the finite being cannot think the thought of annihilation (The Night Watches of Bonaventura, 1804) Long before his existentialist followers, the man from the underground proclaimed the majesty of the absurd. (George Steiner, Tolstoy or Dostoevsky, 1959) From the ancients . . . It has become a commonplace to trace the antecedents of the absurd back to the older stages of Greek theatre (the so-called Old Comedy), or indeed beyond that. Roberto Calasso, in his Literature and the Gods, would trace the roots of ‘absolute literature
5 Histories: antecedents and first phase Documentary film and its ‘judicious fictions’ Docudrama has its roots in a documentary film tradition that was always prepared to use fictional means to tell a factual story. The implication is there in Grierson’s defining phrase ‘the creative treatment of actuality’. The phrase has often been misquoted, with US Judge Pollack’s ruling in the case of the film Missing (mentioned in Chapter 2) just one example. More than once ‘creative’ has become ‘imaginative’; ‘treatment’ has turned into ‘interpretation’ or ‘use’; and
This is the first English language publication of an interview with James Baldwin (1924–87) conducted by Nazar Büyüm in 1969, Istanbul, Turkey. Deemed too long for conventional publication at the time, the interview re-emerged last year and reveals Baldwin’s attitudes about his literary antecedents and influences such as Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen; his views concerning the “roles” and “duties” of a writer; his assessment of his critics; his analysis of the power and message of the Nation of Islam; his lament about the corpses that are much of the history and fact of American life; an honest examination of the relationship of poor whites to American blacks; an interrogation of the “sickness” that characterizes Americans’ commitment to the fiction and mythology of “race,” as well as the perils and seductive nature of American power.
As a poet, critic, theorist and teacher, Charles Olson extended the possibilities of modern writing. Conceived as both a re-assessment of Olson's place in recent poetic history, and also as a way into his work for those not already familiar with his writing, this book invited three kinds of contribution. First, there are contextualising chapters, discussions that situate Olson's thought and work. Second, there are chapters that have as their focus individual Olson poems, whether from Maximus or shorter lyrics. Third, there are chapters by writers for whom Olson has proved a crucial interlocutor. The different kinds of engagement with Olson are grouped according to key themes and preoccupations within his work. The chapters of the first section probe Olson's relation to knowledge, dwelling in particular on the way he looked to make poetry answerable to other ways of knowing. They underscore the degree to which Olson's work was founded in dialogue: with myth, with science, with poetic antecedents. The second section, on Poetics, brings the matter of dialogue to the fore. It provides a reading of the poets' often fraught relationship that shows clearly how questions of poetics crossed lines of affiliation. If the feminine emerges in Olson as a discernible absence, his concern with History is plain. Like Pound, he took the epic to be a poem containing history, a position he modified by the exploration of historical agency he characterized as istorin. The book concludes by considering the matter of relations within and across space.
Social enterprise and third sector activity have mushroomed into a prolific area of academic research and discourse over the past 20 years, with many claiming their origins rooted in Blair, New Labour and Giddens’ ‘Third Way’. But many academic contributions lack experience of policy implementation and do not access the wealth of grey, legacy and public policy literature from earlier periods which supports different interpretations. Since most make few references to developments during the 1970s and 1980s, their narrow focus on New Labour from 1997 onwards not only neglects real antecedents, but miscasts the role of social enterprise.
Adopting a Critical Realist approach, the author had access to previously unused hardcopy documents from archives and collections and interviewed key players and key actors between 1998 and 2002, when major social enterprise and third sector policy changes occurred.
During a key political period from 1998 to 2002, Blair’s New Labour governments forced through a major conceptual shift for social enterprise, co-operative and third sector activity. Many structures, formed as community responses to massive deindustrialisation in the 1970s and 1980s, were repositioned to bid against the private sector to obtain contracts for delivery of low-cost public services.
Other UK academic contributions draw parallels with North American individual social entrepreneurs or rely excessively on interpretations from L’Emergence de l’Entreprise Sociale en Europe (EMES) Research Network, which prioritises a marketised version of “work integration social enterprises” (WISEs).
So the restoration of political and economic democracy has been denied to many local communities.
. Because of their completely different context, the author seeks to show below why North American antecedents for nonprofits and social entrepreneurs are hardly reliable for the UK. Many of these were influenced by the marketisation of North American nonprofits under Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush “thousand points of light” polices which coincided with Thatcher and Major Conservative governments
acknowledged influence of Continental mystical treatises in particular on Kempe's self-fashioning as an English visionary, The Book of Margery Kempe is sometimes read as a text without a pre -text. Yet even though considerable evidence survives of English women's engagement in a vibrant literary culture in Latin and subsequently French from the early Middle Ages onwards, the relationships between The Book of Margery Kempe and its literary antecedents are still relatively unknown or unexplored. This chapter asks what happens if we encounter The Book of Margery Kempe
the end of the twentieth century had their antecedents in the ideas put forward by the various groups that made up the Labour Party at the beginning of the twentieth century. This study has argued that throughout its history, the Labour Party has been involved and interested in international policy and with Britain’s role in the world. International affairs have been a major cause for concern for the Labour Party, not least because of its fundamental understanding that domestic and international politics were part of a whole that could not be treated as mutually
resulted in 61 Fighting obesity in England 61 calls for more interventions to empower communities and their citizens rather than less. At the most general level, this chapter analyses predominant forms of political rationalities, expert knowledge, and governing technologies employed in the attempt to govern obesity in England. More specifically, we look in the first section at some of the historical antecedents to contemporary health promotion by briefly accounting for the preventive measures addressing obesity in the early twentieth century. We then turn to the