The recent emergence of global anti-capitalist and anti-war movements have created a space within which Marxism can flourish in a way as it has not been able to for a generation. This book shows that by disassociating Marxism from the legacy of Stalinism, Marxist historiography need not retreat before the criticisms from theorists and historians. It also shows that, once rid of this incubus, Marx's theory of history can be shown to be sophisticated, powerful and vibrant. The book argues that Marxism offers a unique basis to carry out a historical research, one that differentiates it from the twin failures of the traditional empiricist and the post-modernist approaches to historiography. It outlines Marx and Engels' theory of history and some of their attempts to actualise that approach in their historical studies. The book also offers a critical survey of debates on the application of Marx's concepts of 'mode of production' and 'relations of production' in an attempt to periodise history. Marxist debates on the perennial issue of structure and agency are considered in the book. Finally, the book discusses competing Marxist attempts to periodise the contemporary post-modern conjuncture, paying attention to the suggestion that the post-modern world is one that is characterised by the defeat of the socialist alternative to capitalism.
Death and press photography in the anti-capitalist protests in Genoa 2001
numbers of protesters, but from the intense preparations of the Italian
government to keep the protesters away from the summit, the violence of some
protesters and, more importantly, from the culmination in police violence with
the shooting of a young protester by a member of the carabinieri, the Italian
military police force.
The afternoon of 20 July 2001, when the young protester, Carlo Giuliani, was
shot dead, was arguably a turning point for the anti-capitalistmovement. Dylan
Martinez and Sergei Karpukhin of Reuters, Italo Banchero and Luca Bruno of
Laguiller, and the Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire’s Olivier
Besancenot, achieved in 2002 a combined score approaching three
million. The growing influence of la gauche de la gauche was accompanied
by the mushrooming of various militant groups and associations campaigning against racism, unemployment, homelessness and homophobia,
boosted from the turn of the century by an emerging anti-capitalistmovement spearheaded by individuals like the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu
and the anti-globalisation campaigner José Bové, and by groups like the
Attac association against
sentence alludes, of
course, to the changed political context between the publication of the book’s
first edition in 1987, when the defeat of the British miners’ strike appeared to
silence those who spoke of the continuing salience of class-based politics, and
the post-Seattle contemporary context, when the concept of anti-capitalism
has been forcefully reinstated within mainstream political debate.
The emergence of the modern anti-capitalistmovement suggests that
Marx was right to argue that however many defeats it experiences, the struggle for freedom can never be
Throughout its brief history, photography has had a close relationship to social movements. From the Commune of Paris in 1871, the first political uprising to be captured by camera, to the 1990s anti-globalisation movement, the photographic medium has played a crucial role in political struggles. The book reflects critically on the theory of photography and the social movements themselves. It draws on a range of humanities disciplines, including photography theory and history, social movement theory, political theory, cultural history, visual culture, media studies and the history and theory of art. The book takes as a starting point 1968 - a year that witnessed an explosion of social movements worldwide and has been interpreted as a turning point for political practice and theory. The finishing point is 2001 - a signpost for international politics due to September 11 and a significant year for the movement because of the large-scale anti-capitalist protests in Genoa. Within these chronological limits, the book focuses on a selection of distinctive instances in which the photographic medium intersects with the political struggle. The three case studies are not the only pertinent examples, by any means, but they are important ones, not only historically and politically, but also iconographically. They are the student and worker uprising in France in May 1968 and two moments of the contemporary anti-capitalist movement, the indigenous Zapatista movement in Mexico and the anti-capitalist protests in Genoa in 2001.
structural epicentre of power.
Consequently, alternative modes of opposition are utilised to subvert the dynamics of the totalities. Resistance no longer confines itself to the political, to expressing itself against the bourgeoisie as the representatives of capital. Resistance now
assumes social and cultural forms. These modes of resistance and subversion are
central to the new social movements that constitute recent radical opposition,
expressed through, among other things, the anti-capitalistmovement.
Recent media coverage of anti-capitalist protests would have us
contexts (in this instance, the anti-capitalistmovement).
In such circumstances, the notion of a single anarchist subjectivity or human
nature becomes problematic, with significant implications for the forms of political action that one might take.
This is one of the principal themes of John Moore’s piece in terms of his
analysis of how power imprints itself on the anarchist ‘subject’ in some of the
first moments of life (and even before). Moore poses questions about power that
explore the interface between form and content, time and space, history and
memory in ways
by the SWP as an ‘anti-capitalist’ movement – a generalised opposition to national and international policies and
agreements designed to remove constraints upon capital accumulation. In the
minds of many activists, particularly the SWP, the movement finally coalesced
in protests accompanying the WTO’s ministerial meeting in Seattle in
November 1999. The SWP launched Globalise Resistance (GR) soon after, to
augment its status within the movement. On 11 September 2001, however, the
context of the SWP’s agency was transformed by the commencement of an
in May 1968 and two moments of the contemporary anti-capitalistmovement, the indigenous Zapatista movement in Mexico and the anti-capitalist
protests in Genoa in 2001.
The movement becomes global: from 1968 to 2001
The resurgence of a global movement against neoliberal globalisation in the
late 1990s resonated with the global movement of 1968.14 While these two
movements appeared and evolved in different historical and spatial contexts and
had particular and distinct political agendas, they shared ideological affinities,
common ideas, strategies and tactics. Long
Reflections on contemporary anarchism, anti-capitalism and the international scene
visible expressions of the Anarchist Travelling
Circus at economic summits and beyond are analysed in terms of their significance in allowing a central drama to unfold; as examples of ‘modern pilgrimages’ with the capacity to defamiliarise the familiar; and as examples of an
unlicensed carnival by inversion. Anarchism is a central characteristic of the
‘anti-capitalist/anti-globalisation’ movement, though much of the mainstream
Left has had trouble acknowledging this. Another central feature of the anti-capitalistmovement is the significance of grassroots movements of