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Anthony Musson and Edward Powell

were often symptoms or a reflection of wider confrontations, often inter- and intra-familial feuds. 1 Indeed, the methods available for resolving conflict should be viewed across a spectrum ranging from violent self-help at one end, through mediation, negotiation and arbitration to adjudication in the courts at the other end. We have seen in Chapters 2 and 3 the paths that violent self-help could take and in Chapters 4 and

in Crime, Law and Society in the Later Middle Ages
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

organised themselves to raise awareness and protect ‘their communities’ violently challenged Ebola response teams, banned foreigners, organised surveillance brigades to ensure that no one entered the village and sought the arbitration of regional political authorities (the préfet , or governor). To solve the problem, responders targeted traditional healers, sacred forest leaders, Christian and Muslim religious leaders, hunters, migrant associations

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Pacifist feminism in Britain, 1870–1902
Author: Heloise Brown

This book explores the pervasive influence of pacifism on Victorian feminism. It provides an account of Victorian women who campaigned for peace, and of the many feminists who incorporated pacifist ideas into their writing on women and gender. The book explores feminists' ideas about the role of women within the empire, their eligibility for citizenship, and their ability to act as moral guardians in public life. It shows that such ideas made use – in varying ways – of gendered understandings of the role of force and the relevance of arbitration and other pacifist strategies. The book examines the work of a wide range of individuals and organisations, from well-known feminists such as Lydia Becker, Josephine Butler and Millicent Garrett Fawcett to lesser-known figures such as the Quaker pacifists Ellen Robinson and Priscilla Peckover.

This book provides an introduction to the English legal system and its development during the period c 1215-1485. It affords a valuable insight into the character of medieval governance as well as revealing the complex nexus of interests, attitudes and relationships prevailing in society during the later Middle Ages. The book considers the theoretical and ideological aspects of medieval law and justice, examining the concepts and discourses to be found in official and non-official circles. It concentrates on manifestations of crime and disorder and the royal response to this in the form of the development of judicial institutions. The book then looks at the dispensation of justice both inside and outside the courtroom. It examines in detail the machinery and functioning of criminal justice both in the royal courts and in those autonomous areas exercising delegated powers. The book also considers the use of extra-judicial methods, such as arbitration and 'self-help', to illustrate the interaction of formal and informal methods of dispute settlement. It focuses on the personnel of justice, the justices of the central courts and the local officials who carried out the day-to-day administrative tasks. The smooth and successful operation of the judicial system was challenged and sometimes hindered by the existence of corrupt practices and abuse of its procedures.

Author: Jenny Benham

"It is the contention of this book that there was a notion of international law in the medieval period, and more specifically in the period 700 to 1200. It examines and analyses the ways and the extent to which such as system of rules was known and followed in the Middle Ages by exploring treaties as the main source of international law, and by following a known framework of evidencing it: that it was practised on a daily basis; that there was a reliance upon justification of action; that the majority of international legal rules were consistently obeyed; and finally, that it had the function to resolve disputed questions of fact and law.

This monograph further considers problems such as enforcement, deterrence, authority, and jurisdiction, considering carefully how they can be observed in the medieval evidence, and challenging traditional ideas over their role and function in the history of international law. This monograph then, attempts to make a leap forward in thinking about how rulers, communities, and political entities conducted diplomacy and regulated their interactions with each other in a period before fully fledged nation states.

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"Arbitration, mediation, and third- party intervention"

mediation for the period 700–1200; indeed, we can be confident that most medieval treaties came into being as a result of these two methods. 3 Arbitration, by contrast, historians have seen as a late-medieval phenomenon, pointing towards its use by, among others, the towns of the Hanseatic League to settle any differences that arose between them with regards to trade. 4 In fact

in International law in Europe, 700–1200
Martin Maguire

hidebound than the Cumann na nGaedheal party and more ready to take radical action against the poverty and economic decline that was undermining public morale. The civil service had particular reason to welcome a Fianna Fáil government as the party deliberately courted its support with promises of an arbitration system to address its grievances. The promise of dynamic State action also signalled a central role for the civil service under a Fianna Fáil government. At the very least the Fianna Fáil party did not indulge in the anti-civil service rhetoric of the Cumann na

in The civil service and the revolution in Ireland, 1912–38
Stefanie Schacherer

very likely that the EU proposal builds on the ICS mechanism contained in CETA. 3 The goal of such a new court would be to replace ad hoc investor-State arbitration and also the bilateral ICS mechanisms included in EU agreements. 4 Several meetings of interested countries took already place, such as at the World Investment Forum in Nairobi in July 2016, at the World Trade

in African perspectives in international investment law
Kathryn Nash

Following the signing of the Charter, member states built up the OAU and created policies that reflected the organization’s principles. The institutional priorities within the OAU reflected the norms chosen by the founding members, and the institutions that were most robust within the OAU were the Liberation Committee and the African Group at the United Nations. Other institutions, such as the Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration and Defense Commission, were never fully functioning. Additionally, the policies, including the conflict management

in African peace
Open Access (free)
Pacifist feminism in the IAPA
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 8 Awakening women: pacifist feminism in the IAPA T he IAPA had a women’s auxiliary almost from the date it was founded, as between 1881 and 1882 a number of women in the Peace Society’s Auxiliary attempted to formally attach their organisation to the IAPA. When matters reached a head in April 1882, the Auxiliary split, with one organisation – the Women’s Peace and Arbitration Auxiliary (WPAA) – attaching itself to the IAPA, the other reconstituting itself and remaining with the Peace Society. The social purity politics and

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’