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Jane Potter

v 7 v The Bookman, the Times Literary Supplement and the Armistice Jane Potter The works of novelists, poets and artists have regularly been invoked to give a picture of the world of 1914–18 and its aftermath, rather to the frustration of historians who see these literary and conceptual representations as obscuring or indeed hijacking the ‘facts’ of the First World War. Little attention has hitherto been paid to periodicals and reviews that interpreted and judged these works, but the journals give us particular insight into the issues at stake for many readers

in The silent morning
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

were framed as ideal humanitarian subjects. I then explore a set of photographs Hine made between November 1918 and April 1919, after the armistice was signed. As a photographer concerned with social uplift, Hine’s pictures contributed to a sentimental education meant to include refugees among those worthy of care. This attempt was ultimately muted by the photographs being virtually unused. The final section explores how the refugee subject was eventually displaced in The Red Cross Magazine over the course of 1919–20. This displacement diminished opportunities to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Culture and memory after the Armistice
Editors: Trudi Tate and Kate Kennedy

This book revisits the end of the First World War to ask how that moment of silence was to echo into the following decades. It looks at the history from a different angle, asking how British and German creative artists addressed, questioned and remembered the Armistice and its silence. The book offers a genuinely interdisciplinary study, bringing together contributions from scholars in art history, music, literature and military history. It is unique in its comparison of the creative arts of both sides; assessing responses to the war in Britain, Germany and Austria. Together, the different chapters offer a rich diversity of methodological approaches, including archival research, historical analysis, literary and art criticism, musical analysis and memory studies. The chapters reconsider some well-known writers and artists to offer fresh readings of their works. These sit alongside a wealth of lesser-known material, such as the popular fiction of Philip Gibbs and Warwick Deeping and the music of classical composer Arthur Bliss. The wide-ranging discussions encompass such diverse subjects as infant care, sculpture, returned nurses, war cemeteries, Jewish identity, literary journals, soldiers' diaries and many other topics. Together they provide a new depth to our understanding of the cultural effects of the war and the Armistice. Finally, the book has a recuperative impulse, bringing to light rare and neglected materials, such as the letters of ordinary German and British soldiers, and Alfred Doblin's Armistice novel.

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The British Empire and the 1918–20 moment

This book explores a particular 1918–20 ‘moment’ in the British Empire’s history, between the First World War’s armistices of 1918, and the peace treaties of 1919 and 1920. That moment, we argue, was a challenging and transformative time for the Empire. While British authorities successfully answered some of the post-war tests they faced, such as demobilisation, repatriation and fighting the widespread effects of the Spanish flu, the racial, social, political and economic hallmarks of their imperialism set the scene for a wide range of expressions of loyalties and disloyalties, and anticolonial movements. The book documents and conceptualises this 1918–20 ‘moment’ and its characteristics as a crucial three-year period of transformation for and within the Empire, examining these years for the significant shifts in the imperial relationship that occurred, and as laying the foundation for later change in the imperial system.

Open Access (free)
Exiles in the British Isles 1940–44
Author: Nicholas Atkin

It is widely assumed that the French in the British Isles during the Second World War were fully fledged supporters of General de Gaulle, and that, across the channel at least, the French were a ‘nation of resisters’. This study reveals that most exiles were on British soil by chance rather than by design, and that many were not sure whether to stay. Overlooked by historians, who have concentrated on the ‘Free French’ of de Gaulle, these were the ‘Forgotten French’: refugees swept off the beaches of Dunkirk; servicemen held in camps after the Franco-German armistice; Vichy consular officials left to cater for their compatriots; and a sizeable colonist community based mainly in London. Drawing on little-known archival sources, this study examines the hopes and fears of those communities who were bitterly divided among themselves, some being attracted to Pétain as much as to de Gaulle.

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German and British soldiers at the Armistice
Alexander Watson

v 13 v Indecisive victory? German and British soldiers at the Armistice1 Alexander Watson Hostilities cease at 11.00 today official.2 The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was a watershed in twentiethcentury history. Although the Versailles Peace Treaty of June 1919 has received much closer scholarly attention, it was the November Armistice which halted the unprecedentedly bloody fighting of the First World War and played a crucial role in shaping both the form and reception of the final, ultimately flawed, peace agreement.3 The failure of reconciliation in Europe

in The silent morning
Britain 1876–1953

Music played a major role in the life of a global ideological phenomenon like the British Empire. This book demonstrates that music has to be recognised as one of the central characteristics of the cultural imperialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It begins with an account of the imperial music of Sir Edward Elgar and Sir Arthur Sullivan and the establishing of an imperial musical idiom. The book discusses the music composed for or utilized by official occasions: coronations, jubilees, exhibitions, tattoos, Armistice Day and Empire Day. Community singing was also introduced at the Aldershot Military Tattoo in 1927, sponsored by the Daily Express. The book examines the imperial content of a range of musical forms: operetta and ballet, films, music hall songs, ballads, hymns and marches. In one of the scenes depicting ballet, Indian dancing girls are ordered to reveal the riches of the land and the Ballet of Jewels. There were two staples of song in the second half of the nineteenth century: the drawing-room ballad and the music-hall song. Sir Henry Coward was Britain's leading chorus-master, and his 1911 musical world tour with Sheffield choir was the high point of his career. The book concludes with a discussion of practitioners of imperial music: the divas Emma Albani, Nellie Melba and Clara Butt, and the baritone Peter Dawson.

The Armistice, the silence and Ford Madox Ford’s Parade’s End
John Pegum

v 1 v The parting of the ways: The Armistice, the silence and Ford Madox Ford’s Parade’s End John Pegum By 1925 Douglas Haig, Field Marshal and former commander-in-chief of the BEF, was, like the vast majority of those who had fought and survived the First World War, an ex-serviceman. Though his reputation would endure peaks and, mostly, troughs over the next several decades, in the ten years left to him following the end of the conflict he was generally thought of as ‘the man who won the war’.1 He used that reputation, in his unobtrusive way, to champion the

in The silent morning
C. E. Montague and the First World War
Andrew Frayn

and the Armistice, and argue that in Montague’s post-war writings silence does not offer consolation. Rather, it manifests itself negatively in a number of ways: as an eerie, uncanny absence of sound; as the pyrrhic v 131 v The silent morning victory won with the Compiègne Armistice and the subsequent peace; and as the unspoken or unutterable, the taboo during and after the war. I draw on Montague’s post-war works which deal most directly with the conflict: Disenchantment, his war novel Rough Justice (1926) and his collection of short stories Fiery Particles (1923

in The silent morning
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Laura Ugolini

Conclusion Writing in 1940, Robert Graves and Alan Hodge asserted that at the ­Armistice ‘there were no scenes in the trenches even remotely resembling those that took place at home. There the lighter-hearted part of the population ran mad … There were extraordinary scenes of joviality. Guns captured in battle were pulled in procession round the towns to which they had been officially presented and pushed off bridges or quays. Sexual affairs between perfect strangers took place promiscuously in parks, shop entrances and alleyways’.1 Later historians have

in Civvies