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An ethical response from South Africa informed by vulnerability and justice
Manitza Kotzé

possible flow and the rapid sharing of knowledge concerning those developments and the sharing of benefits, with particular attention to the needs of developing countries. (UNESCO, 2006 ) Two articles in the UDBHR are especially relevant to the issue of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the global south, and in South Africa in particular. Article 8 mentions respect for human vulnerability, while article 10 calls for equality, justice and equity. In this chapter, these two

in Birth controlled
Abstract only
Selective reproduction and neoliberal eugenics in South Africa and India

This book analyses the world of selective reproduction – the politics of who gets to legitimately reproduce the future – by a cross-cultural analysis of three modes of ‘controlling’ birth: contraception, reproductive violence, and repro-genetic technologies. The premise is that as fertility rates decline worldwide, the fervour to control fertility, and fertile bodies, does not dissipate; what evolves is the preferred mode of control. Although new technologies, for instance those that assist conception and/or allow genetic selection, may appear to be the antithesis of violent versions of population control, the book demonstrates that both are part of the same continuum. Much as all population control policies target and vilify (Black) women for their over-fertility, and coerce/induce them into subjecting their bodies to state and medical surveillance, assisted reproductive technologies and repro-genetic technologies have a similar and stratified burden of blame and responsibility based on gender, race, class, and caste. The book includes contributions from two postcolonial nations – South Africa and India – where the history of colonialism and the economics of neoliberal markets allow for some parallel moments of selecting who gets to legitimately reproduce the future. The book provides a critical interdisciplinary and cutting-edge dialogue around the interconnected issues that shape reproductive politics in an ostensibly ‘post-population control’ era. The contributions range from gender studies, sociology, medical anthropology, politics, science and technology studies, to theology, public health, epidemiology and women’s health, with the aim of facilitating an interdisciplinary dialogue around the interconnected modes of controlling birth and practices of neo-eugenics.

Understanding bioprecarity

This volume is concerned with the ways in which bioprecarity, here understood as the vulnerabilization of people as embodied selves, is created through regulations and norms that encourage individuals to seek or provide bodily interventions of different kinds. We explore this in particular in relation to intimacy and intimate labour, such as in the making of families and kin and in various forms of care work. Advances in biotechnology, medical tourism and the visibilization of minoritized communities have resulted in unsettling the norms around the gendered body, intimate relations and intimate labour. Bodily interventions have sociocultural meanings and consequences both for those who seek such interventions and for those who provide the intimate labour in conducting them. The purpose of this volume is to explore these. This exploration involves sociocultural questions of boundary work, of privilege, of bodily ownership, of the multiple meanings of want (understood both as desire, for example the desire to have children or to change one’s bodily appearance; and as need – as in economic need – which often prompts people to undertake migration and/or intimate labour). It also raises questions about different kinds of vulnerabilities, for those who engage, and those who engage in, intimate labour. We use the term ‘bioprecarity’ to analyse those vulnerabilities.

Race as a central and ‘obvious’ choice
Rufaro Moyo

different because certainly in South Africa it was more of a legal, arbitrary definition that people made. That's why it became so problematic because they couldn't fit some people in the boxes, in the terms of what the heck race is this person (Laughs). And they tried all these ridiculous ways of trying to figure it out (Laughs). (Participant 9) The social science literature on infertility treatments or Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) has been growing since the 1980s after the

in Birth controlled
Doris Leibetseder

countries towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) rights and other countries that restrict reproductive possibilities for queer and transgender people. A key aspect of my research is to document the experiences of queer and transgender people using assisted reproductive technology (ART). This is important because there are very different kinds of guidelines and regulations regarding ART in the diverse European countries. My focus in this chapter is on the use of ART by queer and transgender people, how they have to perform particular

in Bodily interventions and intimate labour
Abstract only
Carla Pascoe Leahy

the mid-twentieth century is the way in which technological developments have shifted the boundaries of conception. A proliferation of birth control options, decriminalised abortion and family planning education and services have expanded women’s ability to choose when not to have children. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has extended women’s ability to choose when and with whom they have

in Becoming a mother
Politics, values, and in/exclusionary practices in assisted reproduction
Izabella Main

to reproductive healthcare, and especially a few cases of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The chapter starts with methodological and theoretical issues. The next two parts of the chapter discuss reproductive politics in Poland in relation to ARTs and discourses on migration, depopulation, and reproduction. I ask how reproduction is influenced by regulations of changing state and local governments, how the Polish state regulates women's bodies and supports biological reproduction of the nation, and how the state relates to migrating women when they (and

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Different levels of biopolitics
Verena Namberger

-language proficiency, favourable exchange rates and tourist attractions. Overall, the South African egg donation economy is a paradigmatic example of the reshaping of global politics of reproduction through the normalisation and marketisation of assisted reproductive technology (ART) (Lie and Lykke, 2017 ). This chapter explores the biopolitical dimension of this particular local market for reproductive tissue, which is closely entwined with the global fertility industry. It revolves around the following twofold question. In which ways do Foucauldian biopolitics play out in the

in Birth controlled
Making white egg providers in the repro-hub of South Africa
Tessa Moll

. Sarojini , N. , Marwah , V. , and Shenoi , A. ( 2011 ). Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India , Globalization and Health 7 : 27 , 1–9 . Saunokonoko , M. ( 2017 ). ‘Begging for eggs’ inside Australia's altruistic donor system. 9News (Australia). 3 November

in Birth controlled
India’s response to the ‘ghosts of the republic’
Pragna Paramita Mondal

and redefined the parameters of ‘legality’ of surrogate babies in a broader sense. Transnational surrogacy, biological citizenship, and statelessness Gestational surrogacy is a form of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in which a woman receives the genetic embryo of a commissioning party and carries the pregnancy

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship