Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

Abstract only
Playing Scotsmen in mainland Europe

Twenty-first-century Scottish play-acting draws depth and energy from a European and Western tradition of dreaming Scottish dreams, and this tradition dates back to at least the late eighteenth century, to the beginnings of European Romanticism. This book explores how contemporary celebrations of Scotland build upon earlier Scottish fantasies. The Scottish dreamscape is one of several pre-modern counter-worlds which have been approached through imitation in the past. The book examines the 'Scotland' that is on the play-actors' minds. The Scottish dreamscape was formed in an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century process now best known as Highlandism. It was then that Scotland became associated with the aesthetics and supposed characteristics of its Highland periphery. The book also explores the Scottish dreamscape's spread via the channels of the British Empire and American popular culture. It identifies five key carriers which helped to disseminate the Scottish aesthetic across the world, namely epic poetry, the Highland regiments, music hall entertainment, Hollywood films, and romance novels. The book further focuses on fieldwork conducted in 2009 and 2010. It sheds some light on the different forms of Scottish play-acting, on musicians, athletes, commemorators, and historical re-enactors. The pipers and athletes do not imitate the past; they perform in what they hope are old but living Scottish traditions. Commemorators and historical re-enactors have a different aim. They seek to recreate the past in the present. Finally, the book identifies some of the main reasons for the Scottish dreamscape's special resonance in northern and western Europe.

Every athlete’s body consists of a unique assemblage of physical attributes. In order to maximise performance, these attributes must be trained and honed, but this can be a difficult task as the inner workings of an athlete’s body are not visible to the naked eye. Sometimes, an athlete’s particular skill-set reveals information about the inner workings of their body. For example, an athlete who can sprint quickly is likely to have fast-twitch fibres as part of their bodily assemblage. But in many

in Sport and technology
Open Access (free)
Which technologies are improved, and how?

When watching sport on a regular basis, it can feel as though the many pieces of technology used in sporting competitions are constantly improving. Commentators draw attention to athletes using the newest type of aerodynamic helmet or carbon fibre bicycle. Sometimes, the technological changes can be so enormous that the sport may barely be recognisable, such as when the America’s Cup sailing competition altered their rules to allow catamarans rather than only single hulls. At other times, it is the

in Sport and technology

this chapter details a variety of ways in which various groups have attempted to examine the assemblage. This chapter is all about power relations. Specifically, it examines how various organisations have utilised inscriptions and a range of other surveillance methods in order to control doping. The type of control varies between organisations, with some aiming to control doping discourses, some to control doping in order to prevent it, and some aiming to control athletes. Essentially, this chapter follows the

in Sport and technology

, the BOA appointed its first official Medical Officer in 1928, and Abrahams (long their ‘unofficial’ MO) undertook a physiological survey of potential British Olympic competitors. 6 British doctors and physiologists were among those who conducted extensive tests on track athletes at the Amsterdam Games, in the summer of 1928. This increased interest in exercise physiology had partly been stimulated by the publication in 1927 of both Muscular Movement in Man and Living Machinery by Nobel-Prize winning British physiologist, AV Hill ( Box 4 ). 7 Significantly

in A history of British sports medicine

professional sports medicine organisations – no medical organisations dedicated to the needs of sport, and no sporting organisations with dedicated medical sub-committees. Few medical men (and even fewer, if any, medical women) would self-identify as a ‘sports doctor’ or ‘sports surgeon’, and the population of specialists in the treatment of sportsmen and women was extremely small. Athletes appeared only rarely as the topics of (or guinea pigs in) papers in biomedical journals. Many sporting events took place without any medical intervention or supervision. With practice and

in A history of British sports medicine
The Chinese ping-pong team visits Africa in 1962

, including ping-pong, for diplomacy. There had been an official desire in China to see athletes represent the nation through their athletic success on the world stage for several decades prior to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.3 The PRC leadership, however, was the first to use international sport for its broader foreign and domestic policy goals. In the 1950s, as the PRC battled with the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan) for international recognition in sport and beyond, sport became a prominent site for legitimising the new socialist state

in Sport and diplomacy

(Leveaux, 2010 ). This highlights how the different actor-networks of sports influence whether a piece of technology is utilised or not. In taekwondo, where two athletes physically fight each other, the necessity for the match to continue unimpeded is far greater than the need for a video referee. Similarly, the concept of allowing a player to challenge a call, as in tennis, was seen by the referees in Leveaux’s study as open to far too much exploitation by players to be considered appropriate. However, the

in Sport and technology
Satadru Sen

of infinite mobility collapsed back into the fishbowl (or many fishbowls), Ranjitsinhji was required to align himself with a national/colonial gender that was inconsistent with his essentially cosmopolitan identity. He had reached the limits at the end of the experiment: an athlete who no longer had anything to represent, a soldier without a country and a man without a wife. IV: 1 Athletic manhood and colonial education In her perceptive study of the political uses of education in British India, Gauri

in Migrant races