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Emigration and sectarian rivalry
Sarah Roddy

4 The battlefield against popery: emigration and sectarian rivalry ‘If each priest were to take a wife about four thousand children would be born within the year, forty thousand would be added to the birth rate in ten years. Ireland can be saved by her priesthood!’ George Moore, The Untilled Field (1903) Thus concluded the fictional Fr MacTurnan, so petrified that ‘Ireland would become a Protestant country if the Catholic emigration did not cease’, that he dispatched to Rome an heretical suggestion of rescinding clerical celibacy.1 This may have been a slice

in Population, providence and empire
Ian Atherton

Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Chapter 1 Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Ian Atherton T he idea that ‘military care’ extends beyond death to the treatment of the war dead is not new, though the forms it has taken have varied over time. Roger Boyle’s 1677 military treatise advised a victorious general to look after the wounded and prisoners, and see ‘his Dead honourably buried’. Similar ideas can be found in a number of sixteenth-century military manuals, and can be traced back at least as far as the Graeco-Roman world.1

in Battle-scarred
Louis Rawlings

3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 81 Chapter 5 Battlefield engagements in the age of the hoplite While 200,000 Greek and Persian soldiers were facing one another at Plataea, Mardonius, the Persian commander, sent a herald to the Spartans with the message: Your reputation led us to expect that you would issue us a challenge . . . but as you have sent none, we will ourselves make it: why should we not fight with equal numbers on both sides, you as champions of Greece and us as champions of Asia? Then, if it seems a good thing that the rest should

in The ancient Greeks at war
Political violence in the fiction of William Trevor
Elmer Kennedy-Andrews

4 ‘The battlefield has never quietened’: political violence in the fiction of William Trevor Elmer Kennedy-Andrews While opening his fiction to a wider social and political world from the 1970s onwards, at a time when political violence had returned to Northern Ireland, Trevor has denied that ‘Irishness’ or politics are at all significant to him as a writer. His Paris Review interview is importantly revealing: Since I am an Irishman, I feel I belong to the Irish tradition. I don’t feel that being Irish is the important thing. What is important is to take Irish

in William Trevor
Open Access (free)
Ingmar Bergman, Henrik Ibsen, and television
Michael Tapper

While the legacy of August Strindberg has been very much in the forefront of Ingmar Bergman studies, the influence of Henrik Ibsen on Bergman’s work has yet to be fully acknowledged. This chapter demonstrates Ibsen’s influence on Bergman’s TV dramas in the early 1970s, exemplifying with an in-depth analysis of his production of The Lie (Reservatet, 1970) for Swedish television. It is one of Bergman’s least-studied works and also one of his most overtly feminist ones, contradicting the ideological appropriation of Bergman by some of his critics as a bourgeois director. The Lie merges elements of his own artistry with those of August Strindberg’s play The Father (Fadren, 1887), Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (Et dukkehjem, 1879), and The Wild Duck (Vildanden, 1884) and contemporary melodrama in order to reach a mass audience with his portrayal of a middle-aged bourgeois couple in marital crisis. By reversing the gender roles, he gives the drama a gender twist that, in the spirit of Ibsen, truly deconstructs the idealization of women while ironically undercutting patriarchal ideology. In accomplishing that, it points forward to the dramatic strategies of his later TV productions, especially Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973). The Lie was a huge success at the time of its release, first in Sweden and then in the European Broadcasting Union’s 1970 Eurovision exchange of TV plays. At the dawn of second-wave feminism, it reached an audience of approximately 50 million on TV, thus becoming one of Bergman’s politically most influential works.

in Ingmar Bergman
Reframing Experience in Harun Farocki’s Eye/Machine Series
Alba Gimenez

Harun Farocki’s Eye/Machine (2003) is a video installation which analyses how what Farocki calls ‘the operational image’ reconfigures our visual regimes. The ‘operational image’ allows machines to operate ever more autonomously and to perform their tasks with no need for human supervision. Farocki links the birth of such operational images to the missiles with integrated cameras used during the Gulf War (1991) and therefore to military purposes. Eye/Machine poses a paradox: operational images generate a process of abstraction in which the image depicted (in the case of the war, the battlefield) gets detached from its indexical dimension, appearing as abstract and unreal. However, such detachment can be reversed when these images are recontextualised and reframed within an exhibition space, since that places them within a human experiential framework. Images, and our perception of them, are part of what Judith Butler calls the ‘extended materiality of war’. Thus, war is not only fought in the battlefield, but also at the level of the senses.

Film Studies
France and its war dead in 1914 and 1915
Adrien Douchet
Taline Garibian
, and
Benoît Pouget

The aim of this article is to shed light on the conditions under which the funerary management of human remains was carried out by the French authorities during the early years of the First World War. It seeks to understand how the urgent need to clear the battlefield as quickly as possible came into conflict with the aspiration to give all deceased an individualised, or at the very least dignified, burial. Old military funerary practices were overturned and reconfigured to incorporate an ideal that sought the individual identification of citizen soldiers. The years 1914–15 were thus profoundly marked by a clash between the pragmatism of public health authorities obsessed with hygiene, the infancy of emerging forensic science, the aching desire of the nation to see its children buried individually and various political and military imperatives related to the conduct of the war.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

in 1859, leaving more than 30,000 dead and wounded in a single day of combat. Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen who was trying to get in contact with Napoleon III to request a concession in Algeria, came upon the battlefield and the dying, and the spectacle shocked the fervent evangelical (he was one of the founders of the Young Men’s Christian Association, later known as the YMCA). Dunant took an active part in organising first aid for the wounded, regardless of nationality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

paintings, including The Spirit of the Red Cross and The Madonna of the Battlefield , a large canvas showing the heroism of Red Cross workers on the battlefield. Collections of portrait masks, a Red Cross flag consecrated on the tomb of Christ in Jerusalem, and new acquisitions such as the legendary doll ‘Rose Percy’ rounded off the museum’s exhibit (see Brigham, 1924 ; Givenwilson-Kilner, 1927 ; Washington Post , 1920

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
Sönke Kunkel

has been in the hands of Dunant as well. There’s a certain aura or spark attached to the letter which connects me with it, creating a much more immediate and intimate connection to the founder of the Red Cross that no other medium can generate. And the same goes for other objects. When I see medical equipment, and know that this equipment has been in actual use on a historical battlefield, it has a completely different emotional meaning for me than if I see the same object in an online collection. So what the museum offers me is what I would describe as the ‘aura of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs