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Renegades and ex-radicals from Mussolini to Christopher Hitchens
Author: Ashley Lavelle

The radical who is transformed into a conservative is a common theme in political history. Benito Mussolini, the Italian socialist who became a fascist, is the best-known example, but there have been many others, including the numerous American Trotskyists and Marxists who later emerged as neo-conservatives, anti-communists or, in some instances, McCarthyists.

The politics of betrayal examines why several one-time radicals subsequently became parts of the establishment in various countries, including the former Black Panther Party leader turned Republican Eldridge Cleaver, the Australian communist Adela Pankhurst who became an admirer of the Nazis, and the ex-radical journalist Christopher Hitchens, whose defection to the camp of George W. Bush’s neo-conservatives following 11 September 2001 offers one of the most startling examples of the phenomenon in recent times.

How and why do so many radicals betray the cause? Is it simply a reaction to political defeat? Were their politics always problematic, even as radicals? Were the ex-radicals psychologically flawed to begin with? What implications does it have for left politics? This book, the first of its kind, answers these and more questions.

Liam O’Flaherty’s The Informer (1925)
Gerry Smyth

4 The landscape of betrayal: Liam O’Flaherty’s The Informer (1925) Who would have dreamed Seeing you reeling The streets of Dublin Hurting yourself As if you were the only man You could never forgive That your words would tell Young men and women How to live? Brendan Kennelly, The Little Book of Judas, 96–7 Introduction The extensive differences between James Joyce and Liam O’Flaherty – in terms of their experiences, their personalities and their literary imaginations – should not blind us to some striking parallels between Ulysses and O’Flaherty’s most famous

in The Judas kiss
Abstract only
Carol Polsgrove

honesty in this bleak assessment, it could be seen as a betrayal of friendship, a public shaming of a pivotal political figure whose charismatic power derived from his connection to Kenya’s people. Abrahams had actually not said all he could have. In a more detailed account published six years later in the American travel magazine Holiday , Abrahams described Kenyatta’s abrupt departure from the chiefs

in Ending British rule in Africa
Gerry Smyth

1 A short history of betrayal If we swapped questions, o my brother, Would we know why we betrayed each other? Brendan Kennelly, The Little Book of Judas, 90 Introduction Betrayal is everywhere: in the books we read, the films we watch and the music to which we listen. There are, moreover, ‘infinite types of betrayal’; as Gabriella Turnaturi puts it in her book Betrayals: The Unpredictability of Human Relations: We betray ourselves, our families, our friends, our lovers, our country. We betray out of ambition, for vengeance, through inconstancy, to assert our

in The Judas kiss
Global Africa, Reparations, and the End of Pan-Africanism
Hilary Beckles

those in the anterior of the Amazon, to tear down, burn down and bomb out the albinocratic structures that had long held their “Mother” captive. The Great Betrayal: The 2001 World Conference against Racism Then came “Durban”, and the betrayal of the diaspora, in the building it had helped to construct – a free South Africa – by those leaders who had benefited the most from the great sacrifices of those who came before them. It was in August–September 2001, at the United Nations World Conference against Racism

in The Pan-African Pantheon
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India
Niels Brimnes

2 Fallacy, sacrilege, betrayal and conspiracy: the cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India Niels Brimnes Immunisation in India – an outline In January 1819 the Madras Courier published an interesting note by Calvi Virumbon, in which it was claimed that vaccination against smallpox was known in India before Jenner's famous discovery in 1796. Virumbon wrote that he

in The politics of vaccination
Peter McNiven
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Negotiations at the end of British rule in the Shan States of Burma (Myanmar)
Susan Conway

After her victory in the 2015 elections, Aung San Suu Kyi announced a plan of reconciliation after decades of ethnic conflict in Myanmar. In 1947 her father had attempted a similar plan, culminating in the Panglong Agreement signed in London with Clement Attlee and the Panglong Conference held in the town of that name in the Shan States. This chapter examines the historical and cultural background to these negotiations from the point of view of the minority Shan people and their rulers. It reveals how the Shan reacted to the tensions and conflicts that surrounded the signing and why they felt that the British failed them.

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
‘Metzengerstein’ (1832), ‘The Visionary’ (1834), ‘Berenice’ (1835), the Imagination, and Authorship‘s Perils
Travis Montgomery

The fusion of Gothic and Eastern details, which one encounters in these stories, is obviously not original to Poe. William Beckford‘s Vathek, Charlotte Dacres Zofloya, and Byrons Eastern tales contain similar blends, but in ‘Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’ Oriental and Gothic devices, especially the former, serve unique purposes. With these motifs, Poe continues his investigation of authorship, a theme animating his Poems (1831), in which Oriental devices also appear,with surprising frequency. Published shortly before Poe wrote ‘Metzengerstein’ this volume showcases verse dealing with the craft of writing and the nature of inspiration, and in several poems from this collection, ‘East’ and ‘West’ operate as metaphorical shorthand, with ‘East representing poetic genius and ‘West’ suggesting unimaginativeness. Middle-Eastern devices serve related purposes in #8216;Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’, stories sharing thematic correspondences with the poems that preceded them. In particular, these tales evince Poe‘s anxieties about authorship, its demands, and its pitfalls. Throughout the narratives, Oriental machinery constitutes a network of symbols, collapsing complex ideas into compact metaphors, and with these devices, Poe imaginatively investigates the life of writing in nineteenth-century America, where professional writers struggled to satisfy a mass audience while following their own aesthetic inclinations. Such experiences no doubt proved ‘Gothic’ for these authors working in a society transformed by industrialization, a space where commercial trends impinged on creativity and threatened artistic freedom. Gothic fiction offered a proper vehicle for Poe‘s own anguished response to the challenges he and others faced while negotiating their conflicting roles as artists and professionals. For Poe, preserving the sanctity of the imagination, figuratively associated with the Middle East, was paramount, and ‘Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’, all of which employ Gothic and Oriental devices, dramatize artistic failure, the betrayal of genius resulting in imaginative decay or death.

Gothic Studies
Abstract only

William Trevor is one of the most accomplished and celebrated contemporary prose writers in the English language. This book offers a comprehensive examination of the oeuvre of one of the most accomplished and celebrated practitioners writing in the English language. Trevor is very interested in popular literature and how certain genres run through people's lives like tunes or family memories. His characters are often 'turned in on themselves', strange, extreme, at odds with the world. The various betrayals, manipulations and acts of cruelty that constitute the representative events of The Old Boys are typical of Trevor's England. The book also explores the ways in which Trevor's liberal humanist premises condition his response to issues of historical consciousness, ideological commitment and political violence. Trevor's short story, 'Lost Ground', from After Rain, conforms to Aristotle's vision of tragedy because it depicts a truly horrendous situation inside a family in Northern Ireland. Notable screen fictions illustrating long-term migrant themes include Attracta, Beyond the Pale and Fools of Fortune. Trevor's short story 'The Ballroom of Romance' evokes memories of dancehall days, partly explains this public appeal, which was enhanced by the BAFTA award-winning film adaptation of the story by Pat O'Connor. Love and Summer is a lyrical, evocative story of the emotional turbulence based on a critical variety of nostalgia that recognises both the stifling limitations of a small-town environment and the crucial connection between ethics and place.