James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent. The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.
the autonomous artwork is predicated.
Writing about Duchamp’s ‘refusal of work’, exemplified in his readymades
as well as his oeuvre as a whole, Maurizio Lazzarato similarly underscores that
the artist’s rejection of both the working conditions and the marketable features of autonomous art yielded a reflection, beyondbinaryoppositions, on
what a subject can become outside the means-end logic of capitalist production. The various kinds of ‘good-for-nothings’ discussed in this study, I would
argue, followed Duchamp’s path to laziness and have
first-generation Maghrebis perceived as cultural outsiders,
French people of Maghrebi descent are (still, at times) in a position of
‘inbetweenness’, displaced in relation to both French and Maghrebi
culture. The question is whether their placelessness can be transcended, not just
by the deployment of ‘poaching’ tactics (alongside their peers), but
by the creation of alternative spaces beyondbinaryoppositions, which value
hybridity. This book maps the struggle
it, or where you imagine it to be’ writes
Heather Murray ( 1986 ,
75), extending Frye’s metaphor and offering an outline for
postmodern inscriptions of this Canadian locus classicus .
Murray’s reading beyondbinaryoppositions is especially
useful for a gendered look at Canadian literature. Related to her
reading, gothic filliation since Susanna Moodie
-eminence in Irish institutions, in the name of freedom of conscience and
of the diversity of Irish society.72
From the Christian nation to the republican nation?
The idea of a ‘two-way’ integration process put forward at the turn of the
twenty-first century conveyed a will to go beyondbinaryoppositions towards a
more inclusive social vision. The intercultural approach it implied intrinsically
rejected essentialist and exclusive conceptions of Irish culture or identity. In the
late 1990s and early 2000s, a number of Irish political and educational actors,
as well as media