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The myth of the Flood in Anglo-Saxon England
Author: Daniel Anlezark

The story of the Flood, inherited by the Anglo-Saxons during their conversion to Christianity, was transformed by them into a vital myth through which they interpreted the whole of history and their place in it. The dual character of the myth, with the opposition between threatened destruction and hope of renewal, presented commentators with a potent historical metaphor, which they exploited in their own changing historical circumstance. This book explores the use of this metaphor in the writings of the Anglo-Saxons. It is the integration of a well-known biblical story into the historical and cultural self-definition of a group of people converted to Christianity and its worldview. The Flood in the Bible is clearly a punishment, though the sin is not so well defined. This forms part of a historical pattern of sin and punishment extending back to Eden, and progressed to the sin and exile of Cain. For Bede the historian, the Flood was a key event in the earlier history of the world; for Bede the theologian, the Flood was an event replete with mystical significance. In Exodus and Andreas all the poems share an interest in two themes, which emerge from the biblical story of the Flood and its theological interpretation: covenant and apocalypse. Noah is the 'one father' not only of Israel, but of the whole human race, and his introduction widens the concept of 'inheritance' in the Exodus. The book concludes with a detailed discussion of the significance of the Flood myth in Beowulf.

Infanticide and solace in the seventeenth-century Low Countries
Stijn Bussels and Bram Van Oostveldt

2 The Massacre of the Innocents: infanticide and solace in the seventeenth-century Low Countries Stijn Bussels and Bram Van Oostveldt In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, many writers, dramatists and visual artists from the Low Countries told the biblical story of the Massacre of the Innocents. The dreadful story of Herod’s slaughter, from which Jesus narrowly escaped, had already been popular for centuries, but in this period it was represented remarkably often in the Dutch Republic, as well as in the Spanish Netherlands. The many

in The hurt(ful) body
Jill Fitzgerald

-political structures in the early medieval world. 3 Oxford Bodleian Library, MS Junius 11, fol. 10r Insular narratives devoted to the extra-biblical story of the fall of the angels afford us a way to gauge how Anglo-Saxon authors refashioned an inherited tradition. A variety of liturgical, exegetical, and even versified angelic fall narratives might have been accessible to the Genesis A poet. 58 Aspects of the Genesis A poet’s portrayal of creation have been traced back to hexameral commentaries, accounts of the creation of the world organised

in Rebel angels
Daniel Miller

reasons for anthropologists to take a closer look at the Akedah that is the biblical story of Abraham’s preparedness to sacrifice Isaac – quite apart from the present purpose which is to shed light on the popularity and consequence of Facebook. The story has been the inspiration for a vast amount of literature and philosophy. The closer you look, the richer the implications. There is a wonderful analysis by the anthropologist Alexiou (1990) of the laments of Cretan women over the dead. Here the focus shifts entirely to Abraham’s wife Sarah who assumes Isaac has been

in Framing cosmologies
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An ancient Egyptian Book of Genesis
Haythem Bastawy

.’  37 Nun is not to be confused with Atum, the first man/god, or Amun, the creator of the egg of the world from which Nun and everything else came. Nun was very much present in ancient Egyptian life, being the source of the Nile: ‘During the annual Nile flood, Egypt seemed to revert to its primeval state, and civilization was in danger of being swept away’. 38 Nun was similar to the flood which covered the Earth in the biblical story of Noah, from which life and civilisation started anew. The

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
A discussion of anarchism, art and politics
Rose-Carol Washton Long

To illuminate Der Blaue Reiter’s relevance for artists of the twenty-first century, this chapter aims to enlarge our understanding of what it means to be ‘political’. By exploring the impact of Russian and German communal anarchists such as Piotr Kropotkin, Vyacheslav Ivanov and Gustav Landauer on the work of Wassily Kandinky – specifically, the tract ‘On the Question of Form’, the drama ‘The Yellow Sound’ and the oil Composition V – displayed in Der Blaue Reiter almanac, this chapter relates Kandinsky’s strategy of using multiple contrasting stimuli of colours and abstracted forms (synthesized from vernacular depictions of folk tales and popular biblical stories such as the Apocalypse) to the anarchist belief in natural law and their hatred of capitalism and materialism. It also points to the anarchist praise of the unconventional (as support for Kandinsky’s interest in Wilhelm Worringer’s discourse on medieval and Gothic art, as well as for his inclusion of contemporary composers in the almanac) as Kandinsky sought to address the problems of spectatorship by transforming the conventional Wagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk into a powerful, monumental work of art that would stir and involve his audience.

in German Expressionism
Exploring tensions between the secular and the sacred in Noah, the ‘least biblical biblical movie ever’
Becky Bartlett

the biblical story further. The backlash against Noah began when screenwriter Brian Godawa’s blog post, an analysis of a leaked draft script by Aronofsky and Handel, went viral. Godawa launched a scathing attack on the film, predicting it would be an ‘uninteresting and unbiblical waste of a hundred and fifty million dollars’ that, by subverting the sacred narrative, would be offensive to the faith of ‘millions of devoted Bible readers’ (Godawa 2012 ). Pre-release information about Noah suggests its production was fraught with conflict and tension. The film

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
A mixed-method analysis of online community perception of epic biblical movies
Gregory P. Perreault and Thomas S. Mueller

2002 ) and (2) localisation – ‘the presentation of the Christ-event with the assumption that Biblical stories were written exclusively for today’ (McEver 2016 : 7). Movie studios have traditionally attempted to divide the audience of the biblical epic into three groups: non-religiously motived moviegoers, schools and churchgoers. The non-religiously motivated moviegoers are ‘not enthusiastically interested in religious themes or educational value’ and need to be sold ‘spectacle, drama, the excitement and thrills’ (Hall 2002 : 174) The school population was an

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape
Author: Janice Norwood

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

The Christian critical reception of elliptical Jesus narratives
Wickham Clayton

restrictively linked to an overtly Christian theme or creative force; sacramentally, where a story is modelled on the Passion narrative; and redemptively, where stories of redemption inherently link to Christian themes ( 2005 : 32–4). In this way, we bridge the gap between stories which directly aim to convincingly, aggressively argue for their ideology, moving through to films which use biblical stories and mythology as a template – a casual link to the source of faith but not touching and integrating the ideology itself. A film like The Young Messiah stands within the

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium