accelerating digitisation of beneficiary bodies, and increasing data and
private-sector involvement in humanitarian aid. 3 I want to focus on how these developments, the
miniaturisation and personalisation of ICT technology and a growing interface with
biotechnology are co-producing what I call ‘intimate humanitarian
objects’ for use by individual beneficiaries on or inside their bodies ( Jasanoff, 2004 ). The object of my analysis
is the making of ‘humanitarian wearables’. 4 These are
Over the last two decades, global demand for kosher products has been growing steadily, and many non-religious consumers view kosher as a healthy food option: in the US over 60 per cent of kosher food consumption is linked to non-religious values associated with health and food quality. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. While Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning 'fit' or 'proper', halal is an Arabic word that literally means 'permissible' or 'lawful'. The book discusses the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) with specific reference to audits/inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. It draws on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the social scale, such as individual consumption, the marketplace, religious organisations and the state. It compares the major markets for kosher/halal in the UK with those in Denmark, where kosher/halal are important to smaller groups of religious consumers. Denmark plays an important role in biotechnology that is compatible with what we call kosher/halal transnational governmentality. The book explores how Jewish and Muslim consumers in the UK and Denmark understand and practice kosher consumption in their everyday lives. It also explores how 'compound practice' links eating with issues such as health and spirituality, for example, and with the influence of secularism and ritual.
among the most promising:
1. The feelings in question (namely, those of attachment to someone it is
bad to be attached to) are clearly undesirable, both objectively and
from the perspective of the person experiencing them; and
2. The person wants to use biotechnology, believing reasonably that it
will aid in the achievement of a higher-level rational goal; and this
would be done voluntarily, under conditions of informed consent.
Other promising cases would share this basic structure. For example, individuals who are desperately, and unrequitedly, in love,
who have no
C h a p t e r 11
AVOIDIN G DISA STER
that love drugs and anti-love
drugs are not some made-up possibility for the future: biotechnologies are currently available that can have an enhancing or degrading
effect on the neurochemical bonds that underlie romantic love, and
these could plausibly be used to help maintain some good relationships and end some bad ones. Drugs and other technologies with
even more powerful effects on relationships will likely continue to
be developed, and we have suggested that the time is now to set up
an ethical framework for handling
An ethical response from South Africa informed by vulnerability and justice
access and afford most forms of ART, the issues of biopower and misuse of power in particular come to the fore. Especially in forms of biotechnology where donor material is utilised, donors are often from vulnerable groups, while those that benefit are in positions of privilege where they can both access and afford these treatments. This also raises the issue of intersectionality in the ethical discussion on ARTs in the South African context. I examine this subject by drawing on an ethos that values vulnerability and justice in its response
Within the last couple of decades, the trend in both kosher and halal production is that these globalising religious markets have moved beyond meat to
include enzyme production, for example, as enzymes are part of a wide range
of types of foods and drinks.1 Thus, in the modern and globalised industry
it is not only for food, but also for biotechnology that a number of requirements must be met, such as those demanded by the injunction to avoid any
substances that may be contaminated with porcine residues (kosher/halal)
or alcohol (halal
parental rights in exchange for payment. As such, the surrogate is not directly genetically related to the child she carries, but provides the intrauterine environment. Commercial surrogacy is a growing phenomenon as a function of several factors. Changes in biotechnology have resulted in the increasing commercialization of surrogacy, as reproductive body parts (gametes) and services (gestation) have entered the fertility market, as well as moving it beyond state boundaries. For example, it is today possible to use an egg from an (often white) South African donor
Understanding the intimate labour involved in clitoral reconstruction after female genital cutting
). Nonetheless, due to its perceived harmful consequences and non-consent, FGC is today widely recognized as a violation of girls’ bodily integrity and women’s sexual and reproductive health (WHO, 2008 ).
Transcultural migration and societal changes create new perceptions of the body, self and identity. More specifically, migration of FGC-affected women and girls to Sweden may result in unsettling the norms around the gendered body, new notions of bodily rights and what is perceived as legitimate health care needs and claims.
Advances in biotechnology have resulted in new
As innovations in military technologies race toward ever-greater levels of automation and autonomy, debates over the ethics of violent technologies tread water. Discussions about whether lethal drones are the most moral and effective tools to combat terrorism, or whether killer robots could kill more ethically than humans, often end up conflating efficiency with morality and legality with ethicality. Such conceptual confusions raise urgent questions about what is at work in the relationship between lethal technologies, their uses, and the ethical justifications provided for technologised practices of political violence. What enables the framing of instruments for killing as inherently ethical? What socio-political rationale underpins these processes? And what kind of ethical framework for violence is produced in such a socio-political context? Death Machines reframes current debates on the ethics of technologised practices of violence, arguing that the way we conceive of the ethics of contemporary warfare is itself imbued with a set of bio-technological rationalities that work as limits. The task for critical thought must therefore be to unpack, engage, and challenge these limits. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt, the book offers a close reading of the technology-biopolitics-complex that informs and produces contemporary subjectivities, highlighting the perilous implications this has for how we think about the ethics of political violence, both now and in the future.
Over the course of the past twenty-five years, as neoliberal economics has transformed the geopolitical landscape, monsters have overrun popular culture. This book explores literary, televisual, filmic and dramatic works from distant and diverse countries. It traces the vampire's evolution from the nineteenth-century past of industrial capitalism to the neoliberal present's accelerated violence and corrupt precarity, and discusses the NBC television mini-series Dracula, perfectly encapsulating our own post-recessionary subjectivity. The book addresses state capitalism but turns readers' attention away from the vampire and towards the ghost, focusing on the ways in which such spectral figures have come to dominate new German theatre. On the biotechnology sector, the book presents three examples: cinematic depictions of the international organ trade in Asia, the BAFTA award winning three-part series In the Flesh broadcast in BBC3, and literary representations of the dehumanised South African poor. The book moves from the global to the local, and charts the ways in which post-2006 house owners are trapped in the house by the current economic situation, becoming akin to its long-term resident ghosts. The ghost estates, reanimated and reimagined by the Irish artists and film-makers, are shown to embody the price paid locally for failures in global economic policy. The preoccupation with states of liminality is encapsulated by showing that the borders of the nation state have become a permeable membrane. Through this membrane, the toxic waste of first world technology seeps out alongside the murderous economic imperatives of the neoliberal agenda.