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Editor: Robert Fish

Staging an encounter between cinema and countryside is to invoke a rich and diverse spatial imagery. This book explores the reciprocal relationship between film and the rural: how film makes rural and rural makes film. Part I of the book explores the idea of the nationhood and relatedly, how cinematic countrysides frame the occupancy and experience of border zones. It covers representations of the Australian landscape and the spatial imagery behind the 'inculcation of political ideology' of North Korean films. European 'films of voyage' are a cinematic tradition that articulates representations of the countryside with questions of boundaries and cultural diversity. The 'pagan' landscape of British cinema and the American and British war films are also discussed. Part II focuses on the role that countrysides play in mediating national self-image through globalising systems of cinematic production. Films such as The Local Hero and The Lord of the Rings, the latter in the context of New Zealand as a shooting location, are discussed. The third part of the book focuses on two key markers of social identity and difference - 'childhood' and 'masculinity' - which serve to amplify how embodied identities come to inflect the idea of rural space. A family's relocation to the countryside from the city serves to emphasise that they are isolated from the moral structures that might contain their deviant behaviour. Part IV of the book deals with, inter alia, the Amber Film and Photography Collective, and amateur films on the former coalfields of Durham.

Hakim Khaldi

hostage-taking and assassination of foreigners) and the generalised insecurity (an increasing number of kidnappings of foreigners by different groups), the Turkish government withdrew authorisation for international staff to cross the border into Idlib. The North-East under the Control of the PYD, Syrian Branch of the PKK In 2012, military control of part of the border zone with Turkey was outsourced by Damascus to the Syrian branch

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Medieval Britain, medieval roads
Editors: Valerie Allen and Ruth Evans

This collection of essays on roads in Britain in the Middle Ages addresses the topic from a cultural, anthropological and literary point of view, as well as a historical and archaeological one. Taking up Jacques Derrida's proposal that 'the history of writing and the history of the road' be 'meditated upon' together, it considers how roads ‘write’ landscapes. The anthology sets Britain’s thoroughfares against the backdrop of the extant Roman road system and argues for a technique of road construction and care that is distinctively medieval. As well as synthesizing information on medieval road terminology, roads as rights of passage and the road as an idea as much as a physical entity, individual essays look afresh at sources for the study of the medieval English road system, legal definitions of the highway, road-breaking and road-mending, wayfinding, the architecture of the street and its role in popular urban government, English hermits and the road as spiritual metaphor, royal itineraries, pilgrimage roads, roads in medieval English romances, English river transport, roads in medieval Wales, and roads in the Anglo-Scottish border zone.

Robert Fish

broken landscapes of the border zone; the pastoral scenery to an Arcadian past and the burning fields of a post-apocalyptic future. Cinematic countrysides are affirmative engagements with nature and the non-human, and nightmare encounters with a monstrous and de-natured in-human; the site where bodies are dismantled and lost, and the place where identities are reconstructed and found. Cinematic countrysides are the transformative

in Cinematic countrysides
The 2008 Italy–Libya Friendship Treaty and thereassembling of Fortress Europe
Chiara De Cesari

3 Memory as border work: the 2008 Italy–Libya Friendship Treaty and the reassembling of Fortress Europe Chiara De Cesari A border is made real through imagination. (Van Houtum 2012: 412) In this chapter, I examine one peculiar border zone, namely the Mediterranean Sea – and more precisely that stretch of sea extending between Italy and Libya – in order to explore how memory-making contributes to its re-bordering. The cemetery of an astonishing and growing number of migrants and asylum seekers, this stretch of sea has become a symbol of Fortress Europe and of

in The political materialities of borders
Sibling incest, class and national identity in Iain Banks’s The Steep Approach to Garbadale (2007)
Robert Duggan

The work of Iain Banks has been prominent in exploring the crossings of different kinds of borders: national, aesthetic and generic, ontological, gender and class to name but a few. Banks has also been part of a wider preoccupation in contemporary Scottish writing to do with inhabiting border zones, where the border ceases to be an idealised geometric line with almost no width or physical extension

in Incest in contemporary literature
The political aesthetics of boundaries and crossings

This interdisciplinary volume explores the role of images and representation in different borderscapes. It provides fresh insight into the ways in which borders, borderscapes and migration are imagined and narrated by offering new ways to approach the political aesthetics of the border. The case studies in the volume contribute to the methodological renewal of border studies and present ways of discussing cultural representations of borders and related processes. The case studies address the role of borders in narrative and images in literary texts, political and popular imagery, surveillance data, video art and survivor testimonies in a highly comparative range of geographical contexts ranging from northern Europe, via Mediterranean and Mexican–US borderlands to Chinese borderlands. The disciplinary approaches include critical theory, literary studies, social anthropology, media studies and political geography. The volume argues that borderlands and border-crossings (such as those by migrants) are present in public discourse and more private, everyday experience. This volume addresses their mediation through various stories, photographs, films and other forms. It suggests that narratives and images are part of the borderscapes in which border-crossings and bordering processes take place, contributing to the negotiation of borders in the public sphere. As the case studies show, narratives and images enable identifying various top-down and bottom-up discourses to be heard and make visible different minority groups and constituencies.

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Displaced borders in Skopje and the Colorful Revolution
Rozita Dimova

This chapter re-examines the question of nationalism by assessing the “Skopje 2014” project. The analysis employs the concept of the border as a “tidemark” that sweeps over spatial and temporal axes and leaves material, visible, and invisible traces. This conceptualization of the border enables an inquiry that goes beyond the immediate border region. It allows looking at “Skopje 2014” as a border zone that spans from the capital of the Republic of Macedonia to its state borders and beyond. “Skopje 2014,” as a project of material embellishment of Skopje sponsored by the VMRO-DPMNE government, was actualized through the construction of new buildings and monuments, hence the chapter introduces the role of aesthetics and materiality in the tidal porosity that was created in the center of the Macedonian capital. The materiality of buildings and monuments operates as a bordering device not only across state lines vis-à-vis Greece, but also within and among different political and social circles within the Republic of Macedonia. The Colorful Revolution and its supporters created porosity in the city that facilitated tangible social transformations.

in Border porosities
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Transnational solidarity in the long sixties
Zeina Maasri, Cathy Bergin, and Francesca Burke

This introduction argues that anticolonial solidarity is central to understanding the radical politics of the long sixties. More than an attempt to complicate the spatial and temporal coordinates of traditional scholarship of the period, we trace how solidarity was imagined and enacted across metaphorical and literal border zones. Beyond its articulation within the Global South, the anticolonial liberation project conjured up a broader framework of solidarity that intersected with African American civil rights movements and revolutionary anti-imperialism in the Global North and, not least, mobilised diasporic and postcolonial immigrant communities in the metropoles. The inauguration of powerful forms of transnational identification is evident in and through the radical cultures of circulation that linked up the diverse, yet interconnected, liberation struggles of the global sixties. Emphasising the necessity for an interdisciplinary approach in order to access these marginalised histories, we propose that the trajectories of anticolonial solidarity in the long sixties provide potent models of resistance that can speak to the racialising power structures of the early twenty-first century.

in Transnational solidarity
Roads, colonization and environmental transformation in the Anglo-Scottish border zone, c. 1100 to c. 1300
Richard Oram

13 Trackless, impenetrable and underdeveloped? Roads, colonization and environmental transformation in the Anglo-Scottish border zone, c. 1100 to c. 1300 Richard Oram Roads exercise a powerful hold upon human imagination. The place occupied by roads and travel upon them in popular literature and music is testimony to their symbolic roles as both unifiers and dividers with which they have been endowed. Perhaps more than any other cultural icon they have become identified with the transformative impact of humanity upon the environment through which we move, symbols

in Roadworks