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The development and design of the city 1660–1720

This book is about the making of London in the period 1660-1720. This period saw the beginnings of a new understanding of built form and a transitional stage in the transmission and articulation of that form in design procedures. The book discusses the processes and methods by which the development of the city was financed and organized. It considers the leading developers and questions to what extent the traditional model which attributes responsibility for the development of London to aristocratic landlords is a viable one. The book looks at the structure of the building industry and assesses how it was adapted to meet the demands of the production of speculative housing on a scale and at a pace never previously experienced. It outlines how concepts concerning the form of the new terraces were communicated and transmitted through the building chain and finally realized in the built product. The book focuses on the discipline of architectural history and is primarily concerned with architectural and urban design issues. It talks about drawings as the sum of an architect's oeuvre, rather than the buildings, or the drawings and the buildings together. The book provides information on the style and layout of the new developments and explores the extent to which they can be categorized as a 'modernizing' phenomenon.

The standardization of production
Elizabeth McKellar

remaining vestiges of power that the Companies had were annihilated by the legislation following the Fire which allowed ‘foreigners’ from outside the City to work within its boundaries. The building industry might still be organized around separate trades, however the relationship between these different crafts and the methods for contracting them were undergoing a profound

in The birth of modern London
Theatre as critic and conscience of Celtic Tiger Ireland
Vic Merriman

of key persons and companies in the building industry by influential members of successive Fianna Fáil governments, including successive taoisigh. As others have shown (O’Toole 2009; Clancy, Connor and Dillon 2010), technical arrangements, legal instruments and felicitous opportunities combined with relationships which were close, personal and interdependent, to produce what might variously be described as a ‘climate for’, or a ‘culture of’ individualistic wealth accumulation. While the economic effectiveness of business relationships sailing close to the wind of

in From prosperity to austerity
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Private greed, political negligence and housing policy after Grenfell

As the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire of 14 June 2017 has slowly revealed a shadowy background of outsourcing and deregulation, and a council turning a blind eye to health and safety concerns, many questions need answers. Stuart Hodkinson has those answers. Safe as Houses weaves together Stuart’s research over the last decade with residents’ groups in council regeneration projects across London to provide the first comprehensive account of how Grenfell happened and how it could easily have happened in multiple locations across the country. It draws on examples of unsafe housing either refurbished or built by private companies under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to show both the terrible human consequences of outsourcing and deregulation and how the PFI has enabled developers, banks and investors to profiteer from highly lucrative, taxpayer-funded contracts. The book also provides shocking testimonies of how councils and other public bodies have continuously sided with their private partners, doing everything in their power to ignore, deflect and even silence those who speak out. The book concludes that the only way to end the era of unsafe regeneration and housing provision is to end the disastrous regime of self-regulation. This means strengthening safety laws, creating new enforcement agencies independent of government and industry, and replacing PFI and similar models of outsourcing with a new model of public housing that treats the provision of shelter as ‘a social service’ democratically accountable to its residents.

Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

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Unconventionality and queerness in Katherine Everett’s life writing
Mo Moultonc

cornerstone of the British economy. 64 Between the wars, four million new homes were built in England and Wales, part of a massive expansion centred on the suburb, especially in southern areas that avoided the worst of the economic depression. 65 According to Christopher Powell, the interwar building industry enjoyed ‘prosperity and independence’, and it ‘exerted an important stabilizing influence in troubled times’. 66 Mocked as ‘bungaloid growth’ and ‘ribbon rash’, these suburbs nonetheless have been seen as essential manifestations of some of the central concerns of

in British queer history
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Honest artisans and crafty contractors
Elizabeth McKellar

an object. 7 Although Forty has illuminated one of the key issues in design history his model is not so applicable in the architectural sphere, where buildings have always been produced by more than one person and where a number of different working practices can often be found employed within a single building. Within the medieval building industry there was extensive sub

in The birth of modern London
A genteel life in trade
Conor Lucey

artisanal identity is no longer tenable, and ‘the complexity and richness of the lives of early modern craftsmen should not be reduced simply to their labour in the workshop’.2 Did artisans from the building industry, from sawyers and lumber merchants to carpenters, bricklayers and house painters, generally belong to the middling or lower ranks of society? As discussed in the Introduction, the use of the term ‘artisan’ was often imprecise in eighteenth-​century social discourse, embracing the different strata of professional organisation that existed between a master

in Building reputations
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Constructing Classicism: architecture in an age of commerce
Elizabeth McKellar

city was financed and organized. It considers the leading developers and questions to what extent the traditional model which attributes responsibility for the development of London to aristocratic landlords is a viable one. It looks at the structure of the building industry and assesses how this was adapted to meet the demands of the production of speculative housing on a scale and at a pace never

in The birth of modern London
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The façade and the architecture of street and square
Conor Lucey

implications of the term ‘builders’ classicism’, this chapter amplifies and extends our understanding of how design was ‘a preliminary necessity’ within the late eighteenth-​and early nineteenth-​ century building industry.17 Design and the artisan Recent accounts of the ‘place’ of design in eighteenth-​century British culture provide an important context for understanding the builder’s relationship to it. Matthew Craske has shown that design by mid-​ century was understood as ‘an essential skill for any individual who wished to raise themselves above the labouring masses

in Building reputations