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Managing madness in early nineteenth-century asylums

An archaeology of lunacy examines the historic lunatic asylum from an interdisciplinary perspective, employing methods drawn from archaeology, social geography, and history to create a holistic view of the built heritage of the asylum as a distinctive building type. In the popular imagination, historic lunatic asylums were dark, monolithic, and homogenous, instruments for social confinement and punishment. This book aims to redress this historical reputation, showing how the built environment and material worlds of lunatic asylums were distinctive and idiosyncratic – and highly regional. They were also progressive spaces and proving grounds of architectural experimentation, where the reformed treatment practices known as moral management were trialled and refined. The standing remains of the nineteenth-century lunatic asylum system represent a unique opportunity to study a building-type in active transition, both materially and ideologically. When they were constructed, asylums were a composite of reform ideals, architectural materials, and innovative design approaches. An archaeological study of these institutions can offer a materially focused examination of how the buildings worked on a daily basis. This study combines critical analysis of the architecture, material remains, and historical documentary sources for lunatic asylums in England and Ireland. Students and scholars of later historical archaeology and built heritage will find the book a useful overview of this institutional site type, while historians of medicine will find the focus on interior design and architecture of use. The general public, for whom asylums frequently represent shadowy ruins or anonymous redevelopments, may be interested in learning more about the buildings.

Jesse Adams Stein

service. This chapter demonstrates some of the ways in which memories of working life persist in spatial and architectural terms. Noticing these patterns requires an awareness of how details can be reconstructed and co-constructed through discursive interaction in the interview process and through the interpretation of transcripts, photographs and sketches made during interviews. The extensive refurbishment means that much of the built heritage of this particular factory is concealed and mute. Oral histories, photographs and archives are the chief sources through which

in Hot metal
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Katherine Fennelly

architecture itself, influenced the way spaces were arranged and negotiated by actors on a daily basis. As such, the built heritage of the asylum extends beyond the shell of the buildings themselves. Both the asylum interiors and the landscapes which surround them must be seen as part of asylum heritage. Landscapes and interiors frequently fall outside considerations of the built heritage of asylum. Both features of the asylum which reflect therapeutic aspects of moral management, their omission from consideration leaves the sometimes austere-looking asylum buildings

in An archaeology of lunacy
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

Visualising a changing city

Delving into a hitherto unexplored aspect of Irish art history, Painting Dublin, 1886–1949 examines the depiction of Dublin by artists from the late-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Artists’ representations of the city have long been markers of civic pride and identity, yet in Ireland, such artworks have been overlooked in favour of the rural and pastoral, falling outside of the dominant disciplinary narratives of nationalism or modernism. Framed by the shift from city of empire to capital of an independent republic, this book chiefly examines artworks by of Walter Frederick Osborne (1857–1903), Rose Mary Barton (1856–1929), Jack Butler Yeats (1871–1957), Harry Aaron Kernoff (1900–74), Estella Frances Solomons (1882–1968), and Flora Hippisley Mitchell (1890–1973), encompassing a variety of urban views and artistic themes. While Dublin is renowned for its representation in literature, this book will demonstrate how the city was also the subject of a range of visual depictions, including those in painting and print. Focusing on the images created by these artists as they navigated the city’s streets, this book offers a vivid visualisation of Dublin and its inhabitants, challenging a reengagement with Ireland’s art history through the prism of the city and urban life.

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Katherine Fennelly

buildings as filming locations or as ‘haunted’ attractions. The ‘dark’ heritage – associated with human suffering or death – of former lunatic asylum buildings and their frequent grouping with prisons and workhouses has impacted their study as built heritage, as well as their development. Indeed, the problematic legacy of the buildings has overshadowed their role as large-scale employers, suppliers, customers, venues for community building, and dwelling places, with the result that redevelopment rarely considers the impact of a modified landscape or rebranding on the

in An archaeology of lunacy

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments was created in 1908. In 2015, it merged with Historic Scotland, a government agency that existed to promote the country’s built heritage, into a single body called Historic Environment Scotland. What has been striking in Hewison’s view, is that ‘heritage’ as we now understand it, no longer simply covers castles and ancient monuments but events and artefacts that are relatively recent. Thus, ‘the past is getting closer’ (Hewison 1987 : 83). Within Scotland, we can see a range of museums that cover what might be

in Scotland
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Jasmine Kilburn-Toppin

artisanal regulation, politics, sociability, and culture, densely interconnected to workshops and retail spaces across the metropolis. These built environments had also become fundamental to a collective institutionalised sense of artisanal legacy and craft history. We can no longer speak of early modern London's diverse network of sites and spaces of economic, cultural, civic, or social import without including company halls as a fundamental element of this dynamic urban environment. As flames lapped across the City of London in September 1666, this rich built heritage

in Crafting identities
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Pasts at play
Rachel Bryant Davies and Barbara Gribling

appear until No. 66 ( Figure 0.3 ). While major national events are represented, such as the Roman and Norman conquests of Britain (‘Britain first invaded by Julius Caesar’, No. 32; ‘Battle of Hastings’, No. 76) and the rule of Elizabeth I (No. 110 is the Destruction of the Spanish Armada), the game also aimed to familiarise children with key historical sites embracing national built heritage (e.g. Tower of London, No. 77; creation of London Bridge, No. 80) and including the modern industrial landscape (e.g. ‘Coalmines discovered in Newcastle’, No. 90) as an

in Pasts at play