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National and local contexts
Julie Rugg

3981 Churchyard and cemetery:Layout 1 3/7/13 08:46 Page 35 2 Burial in 1850: national and local contexts It is always tempting to view the beginning of any research period as a static point from which substantial change then takes place. No such claim is made here. Even from the 1820s, burial provision was in flux. Early in the decade, the economic viability of the joint-stock cemetery format had been firmly proved by the establishment of cemeteries in Manchester and Liverpool, and from the earliest years of Queen Victoria’s reign cemeteries were becoming

in Churchyard and cemetery
Modernisation and marginalisation (1984–92)
Andrew W.M. Smith

6 Burial or resurrection? Modernisation and marginalisation (1984–92) Just outside Carcassonne at 10 p.m. on 20 April 1984, around 100 ‘wine commandos’ gathered in the car park of a Leclerc supermarket.1 The swelling crowd was soon spotted in the darkness by the store’s night watchman. Concerned, he tried to challenge them. Their response, sporting balaclavas and with weapons in hand, was a gruff warning that the guard should disappear and lock up his guard dogs. No sooner had he retreated than the hooded men advanced on the empty store.2 With iron bars they

in Terror and terroir
The churchyard as cemetery
Julie Rugg

3981 Churchyard and cemetery:Layout 1 3/7/13 08:47 Page 284 9 ‘Being desirous of avoiding a burial board’1: the churchyard as cemetery The previous chapter has indicated how far statutory civil agencies prevaricated over the need to meet demand for additional burial space in rural areas. In central North Riding, all tiers of local government tended to look to the parochial church council to address any shortage of burial provision. Accordingly, churchyard extension was remarkably common in this area during the twentieth century. Indeed, there were at least

in Churchyard and cemetery
Ian Atherton

Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Chapter 1 Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Ian Atherton T he idea that ‘military care’ extends beyond death to the treatment of the war dead is not new, though the forms it has taken have varied over time. Roger Boyle’s 1677 military treatise advised a victorious general to look after the wounded and prisoners, and see ‘his Dead honourably buried’. Similar ideas can be found in a number of sixteenth-century military manuals, and can be traced back at least as far as the Graeco-Roman world.1

in Battle-scarred
Agency, structure and environment

The book studies Neolithic burial in Britain by focussing primarily on evidence from caves. It interprets human remains from forty-eight Neolithic caves and compares them to what we know of Neolithic collective burial elsewhere in Britain and Europe. It provides a contextual archaeology of these cave burials, treating them as important evidence for the study of Neolithic mortuary practice generally. It begins with a thoroughly contextualized review of the evidence from the karst regions of Europe. It then goes on to provide an up-to-date and critical review of the archaeology of Neolithic funerary practice. This review uses the ethnographically documented concept of the ‘intermediary period’ in multi-stage burials to integrate archaeological evidence, cave sedimentology and taphonomy. Neolithic caves and environments and the dead bodies within them would also have been perceived as active subjects with similar kinds of agency to the living. The book demonstrates that cave burial was one of the earliest elements of the British Neolithic. It also shows that Early Neolithic cave burial practice was very varied, with many similarities to other Neolithic burial rites. However, by the Middle Neolithic, cave burial had changed and a funerary practice which was specific to caves had developed.

Caroline Sturdy Colls
Kevin Simon Colls

Just as the ‘system’ for death registration described in Chapter 7 gave the outward impression that the forced, slave and less-than-slave labourers who died on Alderney were treated in a dignified fashion, so too did the burial procedures that followed. The Germans were keen to suggest that the corpses of all of those who died were buried in an ordered fashion within the official marked cemeteries and that no mass graves or further unmarked burials exist on the island. 1 Official histories of the

in 'Adolf Island'
A reflection of ‘militarisation’?
Susanne Brather-Walter

Merovingian period ‘row-grave cemeteries’ show a variety of burial furnishings. Men were equipped with belts and weapons, women with dress accessories and jewellery. Furthermore, graves contained ‘non-gendered’ objects such as vessels or furniture. Grave-goods assemblage additionally varied based on the age of the deceased, the location of their burial, and the point of time at which they had been buried. When weapons (sword, lance, bow and arrow, shield) and equestrian equipment (spurs, stirrups and saddle) are found only

in Early medieval militarisation
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library