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Film Renters in Manchester, 1910-1920
Richard Brown

Although film renting began in Britain in London, the rapid spread of cinemas after 1910 meant that there was a demand for distribution closer to the sites of exhibition. As a long-established trading centre, Manchester was well placed to become the hub for Northern distribution, and local trade directories list distributors from 1912 onwards. These clustered at first near Victoria Station, but soon moved to Deansgate, as independent distributors began to outnumber branch offices of the major companies. The life-expectancy of these was short, and the First Worlds War affected their business, but they remain an important and under-researched aspect of the early British cinema business.

Film Studies
Aspects of Ireland and the British Empire
Editor: Keith Jeffery

The notion that the British Empire was in any way an 'Irish Empire' is not one that will cut very much ice on the contemporary island of Ireland, north or south. This volume explores aspects of the experience of Ireland and Irish people within the British Empire and addresses a central concern of modern Irish scholarship. The paradox that Ireland was both 'imperial' and 'colonial' lies at the heart of this book. One of the themes which emerges from the studies in this book is the irrelevance of the Empire to some Irish concerns. Popular culture, sport and film are investigated, as well as business history and the military and political 'sinews of Empire'. In cinematic terms, the image of Ireland has been largely in the hands of the British and American film industries. Analogies between Ulster loyalists and zealous British settlers are frequently drawn. The book examines the views of that region's businessmen on the British Empire, including their perception of Empire, the role of Empire as an economic unit and views the status of Northern Ireland within the Empire. The eventual choice of both flags illustrates that pre-partition strands of both loyalism and Unionism continued to survive among leading politicians within Ulster during the 1920s. The British Empire Union of 1915, established to make the Irish more Empire-minded, included the energetic promotion of imperial history in schools and of the idea of Empire Day within the population as a whole.

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Frances Steel

scholarship on the late nineteenth century being less maritime or ocean-centred in focus, the historiography of steam is underdeveloped. There are a number of comprehensive business histories of the main regional shipping companies, including the USSCo., the Sydney-based Burns Philp and Company and the Matson Line of San Francisco. 19 Other contributions from economic history

in Oceania under steam
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

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Author: David Whyte

This book explains the direct link between the structure of the corporation and its limitless capacity for ecological destruction. It argues that we need to find the most effective means of ending the corporation’s death grip over us. The corporation is a problem, not merely because it devours natural resources, pollutes and accelerates the carbon economy. As this book argues, the constitutional structure of the corporation eradicates the possibility that we can put the protection of the planet before profit. A fight to get rid of the corporations that have brought us to this point may seem an impossible task at the moment, but it is necessary for our survival. It is hardly radical to suggest that if something is killing us, we should over-power it and make it stop. We need to kill the corporation before it kills us.

State, market, and the Party in China’s financial reform
Author: Julian Gruin

Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.

Regina Lee Blaszczyk and Véronique Pouillard

informed by design history, cultural anthropology, ethnography, management studies on creativity, and the ‘new’ business history. The book differs from most work in fashion studies because it pulls back the curtain on firms, trade associations, and government organizations to examine how value is created. Intrinsically, this value is both artistic and commercial, and it is rooted in both design and management. Some fashion history researchers emphasize the creative genius of the designer, but we contend that creativity was embodied both in the designer and in other

in European fashion
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How Swedish entrepreneurial culture and social values created fashion for everyone
Ingrid Giertz-Mårtenson

universe that we created together with them. 52 All the garments from the designer collections have been saved and are now kept in H&M’s archives at the Centre for Business History (CfN) in Stockholm. However, H&M have never saved any pieces from their standard lines. This indicates that design collaborations are considered ‘high-status’ for the company. These garments must be preserved while H&M’s in-house designs were never considered of any interest for the future. Nor has any real interest in the history of the company been shown through the years. In a

in European fashion
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Storytelling and organizing creativity in luxury and fashion
Pierre-Yves Donzé and Ben Wubs

creativity. But at the end of day, the stories all add value to the firm’s luxury and fashion brands and, ultimately, increase the market value of the group. Finally, LVMH’s financial success in the last thirty years can largely be explained by strong managerial capabilities and industrial organization, innovative capital constructions, and clever brand management techniques. Notes 1 P.-Y. Donzé and R. Fujioka, ‘European luxury big business and emerging Asian markets, 1960–2010’, Business History , 57:6 (2015), 822–40. 2 A. Chatriot, ‘La construction récente

in European fashion
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A transnational approach to co-operative history
Mary Hilson

, to official recognition and incorporation in government policy. The history of co-operation can be approached in many different ways. From a business history perspective studying co-operatives can illuminate important changes in retailing and commerce, while for social historians co-operation is relevant to the history of consumption and consumerism. My own interest in co-operation arose from a local study of popular politics in the southern English naval city of Plymouth during the early twentieth century. Here, the labour movement, organised around the politics