Adaptation, Dürrenmatt, and The Pledge
Gary Bettinson

In Sean Penn‘s crime thriller The Pledge (2000), a crucial stage of story action is determined by a purely chance event. Neither prefigured by narrative signposting nor sutured into the films system of causation, the chance event both mystifies the fictive agents and distresses audience expectation. This essay explores the issues at stake in the films reliance on chance action, arguing that its usage represents a significant risk on the part of the dramaturgist. Moreover, the essay examines the alterations that the film makes in Friedrich Dürrenmatts source novel, and considers the ways in which these alterations radically transform the effects created by the story‘s chance event.

Film Studies
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

spirit of 1970s direct humanitarian action was fabricated from a deductive process of knowledge formation framed by narratives of history, causation and reciprocity. Reflecting the rise to dominance of a cybernetic episteme, this register has been replaced by a reliance on inductive mathematical data and machine-thinking for sense-making ( Rouvroy, 2012 ). Thinking has been transformed into calculation ( Han, 2013 ). 1 The current dominance within the academy of empiricism and behaviourism reflects this change in world-experience. What is often

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
An introduction

History in the historiographical sense is made by us, not by people in the past, nor by the record of their actions. This book facilitates the critical reading of works of history. It looks at the historical profession, its predilections and traditions. The Whig interpretation of history has been chosen to illustrate the relationship between historiography and a prevalent culture because of its central role in the period when the historical profession began to establish itself in England and because of its continuing popular and political influence. The book acts as a guide to reading historiographical texts, looking at the relationship between 'facts' and 'theories', and at 'meta-narrative' and causation. The book examines the issues of planning and structuring in the process of writing an essay. It offers a guide to the writing of academic history at undergraduate level and to the skills involved, and contrasts this with the non-academic uses of history. The book talks about some gender historians who viewed gender identities as expressions of social change within a wider society. It explores the unique fascination that the Nazis has exercised on both academic and popular historiography, along with the allied study of the Holocaust. The book also explores the works of Marxist historians associated with the Communist Party Historians' Group and considers the earlier approaches to cultural history, as influences on the Group, and the development of newer theoretical positions that developed both out of and in opposition to Marxism. The developments in British historiography are discussed.

A critical reader in history and theory, second edition
Authors: Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

Every piece of historical writing has a theoretical basis on which evidence is selected, filtered, and understood. This book explores the theoretical perspectives and debates that are generally acknowledged to have been the most influential within the university-led practice of history over the past century and a half. It advises readers to bear in mind the following four interlinked themes: context, temporal framework, causation or drivers of change, and subjectivities. The book outlines the principles of empiricism, the founding epistemology of the professional discipline, and explores the ways in which historians have challenged and modified this theory of knowledge over the past century and a half. It then focuses upon three important dimensions of historical materialism in the work of Marxist historians: the dialectical model at the basis of Marx's grand narrative of human history; the adaptations of Marxist theory in Latin America; and the enduring question of class consciousness. The use of psychoanalysis in history, the works of Annales historians and historical sociology is discussed next. The book also examines the influence of two specific approaches that were to be fertile ground for historians: everyday life and symbolic anthropology, and ethnohistory. The roles of narrative, gender history, radical feminism, poststructuralism and postcolonial history are also discussed. Finally, the book outlines the understandings about the nature of memory and remembering, and looks at key developments in the analysis and interpretation of oral histories and oral traditions.

Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

causation, nor progressive simply by the linearity inherent in the projection of a film. The sense of succession is instead primarily one of possible connectives, sometimes horizontal, more often circular and 13  Jean-Louis Leutrat, ‘The Declension’, in Raymond Bellour and Mary Lee Bandy (eds), Jean-Luc Godard: Son + Image 1974–1991 (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1992), p.25. 160 Film modernism associative, frequently returning, retracing, interrupting, digressing, in any case constantly reconfigured. It would be limiting to concentrate on the iconology of the

in Film modernism
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Sam Rohdie

rhymes and doublings rather than a narrative of consequence, linearity and causation. Classical cinematic rules are overturned and violated. The Bertolucci film, like Godard’s films, digresses from a centre, deviates, wanders, migrates. His films lack the unities of conventional ones. Many of the shots and sequences are built on the basis of citations which are multi-directional and associational. The Bertolucci film depends, like Godard’s films, on disruption, interruption of a line, changes of direction, focus, tone and action. The usual boundaries and categories

in Film modernism
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Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

. Bolitho : a new dawn? 7.9 In Bolitho v City & Hackney Health Authority , 50 Lord Browne-Wilkinson reasserted the proper authority of the courts. Bolitho involved questions of causation as much as breach of duty. The facts, briefly, were these. Patrick Bolitho, aged 2, was admitted to the defendant’s hospital suffering from respiratory difficulties. On the second afternoon of this hospital stay, Patrick was in respiratory distress. A nurse summoned the paediatric registrar. She promised to attend as soon as possible, but did not do so. Patrick appeared to recover

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
Stephen Mitchell

. Throughout much of this century, functionalist interpretations of witchcraft in non-western contexts, for example, held that concepts of witchcraft are also theories of causation – and if there is causation, then there are agents of causation, and if there are agents of causation, then such agents can be identified. This view of witchcraft as a logical cultural construct was classically formulated by Evans-Pritchard in his study of Zande

in Witchcraft Continued
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

necessary: arbitrary, because there is no evident connection between the images in a given narrative; necessary, because once the images are grouped there appears to be a connection (causation, linearity). While necessity seems arbitrary (accords are exterior to the images and imposed from outside rather than naturally motivated from within), arbitrariness appears as necessity (any image, though equally possible in the place of any other, is

in Montage
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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

difficult to identify the theory or concepts upon which it rests. When reading the following chapters, therefore, we suggest that you bear in mind the following four interlinked themes: context, temporal framework, causation or drivers of change, and subjectivities. These themes will help you elicit and understand the theories underlying a work of history. The approach of historians to these themes will also reflect their fundamental epistemological stance. By epistemology we mean the theory of knowledge, or justification for what constitutes historical knowledge

in The houses of history