Lisa Shaw

This chapter considers the performance of songs in the musical comedy films known as chanchadas , which dominated film production in Brazil from the late 1930s to the beginning of the 1960s, and initially at least took their inspiration from the Hollywood musical. The majority of these low-budget films were produced by the Atlântida studios, based in Rio de Janeiro, and each contained, on average

in Screening songs in Hispanic and Lusophone cinema

This book provides a chronological study of popular cinema in Brazil since the introduction of sound at the beginning of the 1930s. It begins the study with a brief discussion of how people understand the term 'popular cinema', particularly within a Latin American context. The focus is on films that have intentionally engaged with 'low-brow' cultural products, whose origins lie in pre-industrial traditions, and which have been enjoyed by wide sectors of the population, chiefly at the lower end of the social hierarchy. Perhaps the most important contribution of the chanchada of the 1950s was to render visible a social class within Brazil's socio-cultural landscape, and to champion the underdog, who succeeds in triumphing, through malandragem, over more powerful opponents. Brazilian popular cinema, at least until the 1980s, can be seen as a direct descendant of other shared cultural experiences. Popular film in Brazil is littered with examples of carnivalesque inversions of societal norms and established hierarchies. The 1930s witnessed the rise of the radio, the record industry and the talking cinema. The first half of the 1940s witnessed a continuation of Getúlio Vargas's quest for economic expansion based on the creation of a dignified workforce, rewarded for its efforts by improvements in the welfare system. The book also looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amacio Mazzaropi; those of the comedic quartet known as the Trapalhoes; and the so-called pornochanchada series of films.

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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

cost of the copies and advertising.’ 3 In this favourable climate, the appeal of the home-grown chanchada endured throughout the 1950s. Carlos Manga’s Colégio de brotos (College of Chicks, 1956), for example, attracted a quarter of a million viewers in the first week it was shown, a record that was not broken until 1975. 4 In the film magazine Cinelândia (April 1957), Zenaide Andréa wrote, ‘Box-office records have

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

just one example. The physiognomy of the city and the dualities of everyday existence, particularly the opposition between the rural world and urban modernity, were key elements of the chanchada, in particular. The chanchada, from its inception in the 1930s, harked back to a pre-industrial era, rejecting modernity and urbanisation in favour of the nostalgic assertion of traditional values of friendship, camaraderie

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

, including the creation of a state film distribution agency, a sizeable increase in the national film quota, the proliferation of ‘quota quickies’ and a loosening of censorship restrictions. The chapter is divided into two sections. The first section looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amàcio Mazzaropi

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

. Cinema novo, utopia and popular culture Many of the films that have been examined so far in this study, the chanchada, the films of Mazzaropi, those of the Trapalhões and Coffin Joe, and the pornochanchada, are about as far removed as is possible from classic 1960s cinema novo, the films that Brazil is best known for on an international art-house stage. But as was witnessed in its Tropicalist phase

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
Editors: Lisa Shaw and Rob Stone

This book explains how the famous Spanish singer and actress Imperio Argentina starred in a film, Carmen, la de Triana, that was made in Berlin under the auspices of the Third Reich. It examines the Transition between the dictatorship and democratic eras in four films featuring performances in which transgendered protagonists lip-synch to songs from the Hispanic diaspora. The book considers how punk music and its attendant sensibility and cultural practices were profoundly influential in Spain throughout the early years of democracy. It focuses on one of the most financially successful Spanish films of the last ten years: El otro lado de la cama. The book moves to how punk music and its attendant sensibility and cultural practices were profoundly influential in Spain throughout the early years of democracy. This was when the Spanish version of British punk's irreverence, playful and disrespectful attitude toward art, bad taste, and corrosive humour nevertheless failed to capitalise on the political overtones of the original movement. The book lays emphasis on music as an indicator of the attitudes, social hierarchies and demarcations of youth but marks a shift in focus towards flamenco. Continuing the interwoven themes of rootlessness and evolution, it examines the diegetic and non-diegetic contribution of songs to representative films of the so-called 'immigration cinema' genre within Spanish cinema. Next come the exploration of transnationalism, migration and hybridity by exploring the role of Afro-Cuban song, music and dance in two films from Mexican cinema's golden age: Salón Méxicoand Víctimas del pecado.

Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

proved to have been the most enduring influence on popular cinema, and particularly the chanchada or musical comedy film. 2 The evolution of the teatro de revista in many ways pre-empted that of popular film, as both relied heavily on circus humour, socio-political critique and musical numbers. Like the chanchada, the teatro de revista was a particularly carioca (Rio de Janeiro-based) phenomenon. 3

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

per year, as opposed to nearly four hundred imported releases. 5 By all accounts these newsreels were often met with the booing and hisses of the cinema audience, 6 who would have subsequently delighted in the ironic juxtaposition of state-sponsored, self-congratulatory propaganda and the counter-cultural messages of popular film, particularly the irreverent attitudes towards authority conveyed by a typical chanchada

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

by popular film genres, as producers realised that they could not survive on ‘quality’ pictures alone.) Catherine Benamou argues that throughout the 1930s popular Brazilian cinema (and more specifically the chanchada tradition, discussed in more detail below) was in synchrony, at least nominally, with the cultural policies of the central state apparatus. 13 Nevertheless, the tradition of comedy films that emerged in the course of

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001