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From Cold War ‘security threats’ to the ‘security challenges’ of today
David Arter

12 The changing security environment of the Nordic region: from Cold War ‘security threats’ to the ‘security challenges’ of today Given our geographical location, the three main security challenges for Finland today are Russia, Russia and Russia – and not only for Finland…. (Häkämies 2007) ‘All four [mainland Nordic] states, culturally Western and ideologically democratic, found themselves because of their geographical location on the strategic and cultural frontier between the superpowers and their nascent blocs as these were formed in the immediate post

in Scandinavian politics today
Series: Politics Today
Author: David Arter

This book analyses the contemporary politics of the nation states of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and the Home Rule territories of Greenland, Faeroes and Åland that together make up the Nordic region. It covers Scandinavia past and present, parties in developmental perspective, the Scandinavian party system model, the Nordic model of government, the Nordic welfare model, legislative-executive relations in the region, and the changing security environment. The Nordic states have a shared history, common linguistic bonds and a common state Lutheran religion. Of the six Scandinavian languages, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are mutually intelligible, whilst Swedish is an official national language in Finland. Turning to a brief overview of nation-building and state-building in the Nordic region, an obvious distinction can be drawn between those 'stateless nations' which went on to achieve statehood and the territories that have not achieved independence. The book presents a brief chronology of events in Norden up to 1922, when Åland achieved autonomy. In Sweden the historic phase of party-building produced a basic two-plus-three configuration and a party system based on five 'isms': communism, social democracy, agrarianism, liberalism and conservatism. By 1930 there was a bifurcated parliamentary left and a fragmented nonsocialist bloc consisting of essentially town-based Liberal and Conservative parties and a farmer-based Agrarian Party. Whilst acknowledging the limitations inherent in the periodisation of party system change, the book focuses on the extent of party system change since the 'earthquake elections' of 1970-73.

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Security and enlargement into the twenty-first century
Alistair J.K. Shepherd

in Chapter 2 and David Brown in Chapter 3 . In the context of ESDP, enlargement presented an opportunity to reinvigorate the waning political will to develop the necessary military capabilities to complement the EU’s new and existing civilian capabilities. The new member states showed genuine will to reform and improve their military capabilities to adjust to the changed security environment, even if they barely had the

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
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UK Africa policy in the twenty-first century: business as usual?
Danielle Beswick, Jonathan Fisher, and Stephen R. Hurt

.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/bisa-africa/uk-africa-policy for more information on the Series and its outputs [accessed 2 February 2018]. References Abrahamsen, R. (2005) ‘Blair’s Africa: the politics of securitization and fear’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political , 30:1, 55–80. Beswick, D. and Hammerstad, A. (2013) ‘African agency in a changing security environment: sources, opportunities and challenges’, Conflict, Security & Development , 13:5, 471–86. Blair, T. (2001) ‘Full text: Tony

in Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century
Lessons from the Asia-Pacific
Evangelos Fanoulis

Lisbon Treaty: Neighbours and New Actors in a Changing Security Environment”, Perspectives on European Politics and Society 12 (4): 361–70. Kotsopoulos, John. (2006). “A Human Security Agenda for the EU?”, European Policy Centre Papers 48. Brussels. Long, Stephanie, and Janice Wormworth. (2012). “Tuvalu: Islanders Lose Ground to Rising Seas”, in J. Bakker, S. Leckie and E. Simperingham (eds), Climate Change and Displacement Reader. London: Routledge. Martin, Mary, and Taylor Owen. (2010). “The Second Generation of Human Security: Lessons from the UN and EU Experience

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
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Aaron Edwards

of British strategy after World War Two. Indeed, the eight case studies were chosen primarily because it is in small wars, perhaps the most political form of military activity,36 that one can see civil– military relations at their most strained, when decisions have been taken that tell us much about the strategy being followed, if any. The book also argues that, regardless of the political complexion of the party in office, successive governments have had to take into consideration both the challenges posed by a changing security environment and the political

in Defending the realm?
Kerry Longhurst

Policy Guidelines. Guidelines for a changed security environment The new Verteidigungspolitische Richtlinien (VPR) were issued by Scharping’s successor Peter Struck. Succeeding those drafted by Volker Rühe back in 1992, the new VPR set out new principles shaping Germany’s security policy, identified new challenges and began to prescribe the types of response and programme of reform required to meet Germany’s contemporary security environment.23 Struck’s guidelines represent Germany’s consolidated response to the events of September 11 2001 and the subsequent US-led war

in Germany and the use of force
Chiyuki Aoi and Yee-Kuang Heng

support the United States in addressing the changing security environment in the Far East. After less than a month of debate in the diet, the Koizumi Government passed legislation – the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law (ATSML) – that empowered the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) to deploy to the Indian Ocean for refuelling missions. Although the UNSC's and the US's interpretation that the 9/11 attacks warranted the United States to resort to its right of self-defence put Japan in a sensitive position (as Japan could not exercise the right of

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Katja Biedenkopf and Alexander Mattelaer

from center of gravity analysis of actors that could no longer be called opposing forces. Such adaptation risks spilling over to the NATO environment as well. Fundamentally, this relates to the question to what extent these planning tools retain their applicability in a changing security environment. In that sense, emulation may also imply the semantic hollowing out of existing terms. While this section could only sketch the policy diffusion and transfer process as well as some of its scope conditions in the case of operational planning

in Foreign policy as public policy?
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Tim Aistrope

security environment – to decentralised, self-sustaining, self-radicalising terrorists. 26 For Hadley counter-terrorism strategy needed an ideational dimension that could challenge terrorist ideology and present an alternative to it: The antidote to this radical vision is democracy, justice and the

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy