Professor Drummond's two pioneering studies, British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919-1939, 1972, and Imperial Economic Policy 1917-1939, 1974, helped to revive interest in Empire migration and other aspects of inter-war imperial economic history. This book concentrates upon the attempts to promote state-assisted migration in the post-First World War period particularly associated with the Empire Settlement Act of 1922. It examines the background to these new emigration experiments, the development of plans for both individual and family migration, as well as the specific schemes for the settlement of ex-servicemen and of women. Varying degrees of encouragement, acquiescence and resistance with which they were received in the dominions, are discussed. After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922. This made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement in British Empire countries. Foremost amongst the achievements of the high-minded imperial projects was the free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee. Cheap passages were considered as one of the prime factors in stimulating the flow of migration, particularly in the case of single women. The research represented here makes a significant contribution to the social histories of these states as well as of the United Kingdom.
‘Poor Jones’, as
John Roberts called him, had now been farewelled. 1 The fledgling mission
organisation had drawn on all its resources to outfit Thomas and Ann
for the voyage, and had seized the opportunity through
Roberts’s shipping connections to secure a cheappassage, for
which sympathetic friends paid half. Jones’s
‘poverty’ was no measure
Single female migration and the Empire Settlement Act, 1922–1930
had good domestic skills and an inclination for home-making.
Cheappassages were considered one
of the prime factors in stimulating the flow of migration, particularly
in the case of single women. 44 For women between positions or out of work,
their very lack of funds made them most vulnerable to the pull of
migration and its promise of a more secure
offered more opportunities than Australia or other new world settler
societies where access to land and finance was more problematic. 52
All the Shadwells wanted, however, was to go
‘home’. The coming of the steamer service offered the
prospect of cheaperpassages to England, and Emma fantasised about
disembarking at the East India Docks in London. But on the salary of
the pitfalls of the emigrant life – as in this imagined interchange between two
doric-speaking farm servants in 1926.
‘The farmers are no’ very pleased aboot the
lads gaun awa, are they?’ said the Sou tar.
They’re short o’ men now, Hilly [the farmer]
says, and it’s no’ fair o’ the Government to tryst awa mair wi’
cheappassages,’ said Dyker.
‘But gin it was cheappassages for Canadian stots
comin’ here, Hilly wadna object,’ said Molie ... .
‘I canna say that I’m awfu
it is not a reason for writing the book.
A chapter guide
The book is divided into two parts, each with four chapters. Part I presents a decade-by-decade chronology of changes in migration patterns
and experience, progressing gradually from the postwar migration of
austerity to a more discretionary mobility of affluence. Chapter 1 focuses
on ‘pioneers of modern mobility’ of the 1940s to 1960s, in which some
migrants seized on the opportunities of cheappassages and the ‘colonial
dividend’ of anglophone countries to forge adventurous new forms of
, The Whereabouts of Eneas McNulty, 131.
Barry, The Whereabouts of Eneas McNulty, 131.
Barry, The Whereabouts of Eneas McNulty, 132.
Cullingford, ‘Colonial Policing,’ p. 31.
A number of reports about the Irish in New Orleans maintain that ‘As
New Orleans was a thriving port city, the itineraries of many boats
ended [t]here and the passengers simply stayed. In addition, Irish
immigrants often found cheappassage to New Orleans because after
cotton ships unloaded their cargo in Liverpool, captains needed to
load their holds up with human ballast for the return trip
relate how he was able to cross the Atlantic in the 1880s on a cheappassage,
spend as much time as he liked working as a cowboy in the American West,
and only being asked by United States Customs not to use the revolver he
23/10/98, 11:43 am
The economic element and the NWO
had stuck in his waist-band illegally.14 The world outside and within Europe
was bound by Empires that could be crossed without difficulty.
It might be argued that the Listian economic policies of import
substitution followed by many European states (notably Germany