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Catholicism, gender and ethnicity in nineteenth-century Scotland
Author: S. Karly Kehoe

This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.

S. Karly Kehoe

understand the context of their recruitment, a brief examination of the historical background of the Scottish Catholic Mission must first be provided. This chapter begins with an outline of the state of Catholicism in Scotland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a period when persecution, priest shortages and incessant financial hardship plagued church development. It highlights the cultural tension that was at play between an indigenous Scots clergy and many of the Irish missionaries who, through their common Scotland’s Catholic Church before emancipation

in Creating a Scottish Church
Abstract only
S. Karly Kehoe

book, while being a history of Catholicism in nineteenth-century Scotland seeks to place a particular emphasis on the influence that women religious had over church development. Women religious, as teachers, social welfare workers and role models, played a crucial role in the church’s complex though not entirely successful campaign to dilute the Irishness of the Catholic migrants in Scotland. Though the first two chapters do not concentrate specifically on women religious, they map out the religious landscape and highlight the developments that preceded and

in Creating a Scottish Church
Coping with change
S. Karly Kehoe

structural change and in light of increasing levels of Irish migration, the period between 1830 and 1860 saw increased church development in Scotland’s two main centres, Edinburgh and Glasgow. This chapter will show how developments such as Catholic emancipation, reform, and the rise of evangelicalism and liberalism forced Catholic authorities and the state to reconsider Catholicism’s position within society. This reappraisal would result in a complete transformation of the church’s existing infrastructure and change the way in which it absorbed the influence of

in Creating a Scottish Church
Joseph Hardwick

would not make ‘any provision whatever’ for him while his £150 salary was paid jointly by the colonial Government and the SPG. 49 Voluntary activism seemed to be a nonstarter in those places, such as New South Wales, where all clergy were government-funded chaplains. Yet external funding did not completely rule out lay involvement in Church development. In Upper Canada retired officers read

in An Anglican British World
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Being Irish in nineteenth-century Scotland and Canada
S. Karly Kehoe

). Kehoe, Creating a Scottish Church, p. 1. F. MacDonald, Missions to the Gaels: Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Ulster and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 2006). An obstacle to Church development, this tension cemented deep divisions that lasted well into the twentieth century. See David Ritchie, ‘The Civil Magistrate: the Scottish Office and the anti-Irish campaign, 1922–1928’, Innes Review, 68 (2012), 48–76. Works on the nineteenth century include A. Ross, ‘The development of the Scottish Catholic community, 1878

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
S. Karly Kehoe

would continue to exercise a significant influence over church development, particularly through donations and bequests, their increasing assertiveness, epitomised by men like Frederick Lucas, stimulated a more directed and controlled response to education. A dedicated ultramontane and pro-Irish campaigner, Lucas had converted to Catholicism from Quakerism and had founded the Association of St Thomas of Canterbury for the Vindication of Catholic Rights in 1847 to lobby politicians to support Catholic education.61 Church authorities in England and Scotland were

in Creating a Scottish Church