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Catholicism, gender and ethnicity in nineteenth-century Scotland

This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.

This chapter investigates the ways in which Irish and Scots place identities were mediated through discursive religious practice. It also addresses the nature of the religious networks which linked the major Irish and Scots denominations throughout the Empire. The policy of fostering Irish clericalism within the Catholic Church in Australia constituted one discursive network linking Australia and Ireland with other parts of the Empire. Churches were among the most important of all focal points for communities. Churches and other buildings attracted meanings that continuously changed according to time and circumstance. The Irish Catholic Church's transformation under the leadership of Cardinal Cullen privileged explicit missionary enterprise. Religious sites of the sort described here constituted an important part of the ever changing mosaic of semiotic meaning inscribed as place in the Australian landscape by hegemonic and subaltern groups in the white migration stream.

in Imperial spaces
Coping with change

Gillis did, though it is unlikely that Chalmers inspired this idea, was to recruit a community of women religious to Edinburgh. When the Ursulines of Jesus, an upper-class French female congregation, arrived in 1834 they inaugurated a new era of church development by reintroducing convent life to Scotland. Crucially, their arrival installed an active female dimension in the Catholic Church and represented a radical departure from everything that Scottish Catholicism had previously known. The establishment of convents enabled the real work of church transformation to

in Creating a Scottish Church
Abstract only

evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability, but attention is also paid to other important developments such as the establishment of the first

in Creating a Scottish Church

Ursulines, but they did experience struggles with clerics, though these tended to revolve more around issues of ethnicity, as will be discussed in more depth below. Although the clergy could not have accomplished any widespread church transformation without women religious, the vast majority resented and resisted the independence and agency that these women continually demonstrated. Sisters of Mercy in Edinburgh One of the most common problems facing researchers of women religious concerns archive access and while many congregations and communities are extremely helpful

in Creating a Scottish Church