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How it changed
Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:37 Page 192 7 The Church: how it changed Introduction While they were absorbed with the issue of the spread of Protestantism during the English Reformation, most historians gave almost passing attention to an equally important question: what impact did the Reformation have upon the Church of England as an institution? This was perhaps due to the fact that by the later 1960s it was now historians rather than ecclesiastical historians who had command of the field. Nevertheless, some work was produced which helped to provide

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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Phil McCluskey

7 The church The French Government was well aware of the importance of religion in managing conquered populations.1 The church was central to the diffusion of pro- (or anti-) French views; as with the lay elites, the co-operation of the clergy was vital in maintaining order. Lorraine and Savoy were predominantly Catholic societies, and the clergy possessed immense influence over consciences and public opinion, but experience in several newly annexed provinces showed that the loyalties of the religious elites could be the most difficult to win out of all of the

in Absolute monarchy on the frontiers
Catholicism, gender and ethnicity in nineteenth-century Scotland

This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.

Stewart J. Brown

In 1869, Parliament disestablished the Church of Ireland, dissolving what Benjamin Disraeli called the ‘sacred union’ of church and state in Ireland. Disestablishment involved fundamental issues – the identity and purpose of the established church, the religious nature of the state, the morality of state appropriation of church property for secular uses, and the union of Ireland and Britain – and debate was carried on at a high intellectual level. With disestablishment, the Church of Ireland lost much of its property, but it recovered, now as an independent Episcopal church with a renewed mission. The idea of the United Kingdom as a semi-confessional Protestant state, however, was dealt a serious blow.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Nigel Aston

This article focuses on the career and writings of a neglected eighteenth-century High Church cleric, Thomas Townson (1715–92). It aims to restate his contemporary prominence as a writer and pastor and present fresh research into the intergenerational transmission and reception of High Church ideas and practices within a distinctive religio-political milieu in Staffordshire and Cheshire. In this recovery of contexts, it notes Townson’s relatively slight inspirational importance within both the Hackney Phalanx and the earlier Oxford Movement, and argues that, while there were undoubted continuities and connections between the Georgian Church of England and the Tractarians, Townson’s marginality for most of the latter serves to confirm Peter Nockles’s emphasis on the Oxford Movement as, in many senses, a ‘new start’.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Placing the people at the heart of sacred space
Laura Varnam

4 What the church betokeneth: Placing the people at the heart of sacred space In the Middle English translation of the compendium for Lollard preachers, the Rosarium Theologie, the entry for ‘edifiyng’ asks: ‘wilt þou belde þe house of God?’ If so, the reader is instructed to proceed as follows: Giffe to trewe pore men warof þei may liffe and þou has edified a resonable house to God. Men forsoþ duelleþ in beledyngz, God forsoþ in holi men. Wat kynez þerof be þai þat spoilez men & makeþ edifyngz of martirez? Þei made habitacions of men and sturbiliþ habitacions

in The church as sacred space in Middle English literature and culture
Alec Ryrie

The origins of the Scottish Reformation Chapter 1 A ‘corrupt’ Church? ‘CORRUPTION’ AND ITS IMPORTANCE A fter 1560, when Roman Catholics looked back on the disaster that had engulfed their Church in Scotland, they knew who to blame. There was the greed of the nobles, the lassitude of the common people and – of course – the depravity of the Protestants. Above all, however, they blamed themselves. Lord Herries, who had repented of his own former Protestantism, described the years before the crisis in a tone of lamentation: It is certain that in these days the

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Origins and early development

T HE EARLIEST REFERENCE to a church in Manchester is found in the Domesday survey’s account of the Salford Hundred, the late Anglo-Saxon administrative division in which Manchester was located. Writing of the time of King Edward the Confessor in 1066, the survey notes that ‘the church of St Mary and the church of St Michael held one carucate of land in Manchester, free from all dues except tax’. Prior to the Norman Conquest, then, there were two local churches, endowed with land totalling one

in Manchester Cathedral
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Mervyn Busteed

3 • The Catholic Church It is generally agreed that the Catholic Church played a highly significant role in almost every dimension of the life of Irish migrants in nineteenthcentury Britain.1 Nonetheless, two caveats should be borne in mind. First, whilst a good deal of attention will be focused on the social, cultural and political impact of the church, its prime self-defined function was spiritual, namely to preach its version of the Christian message and provide the faithful with opportunities for worship, spiritual solace, instruction and guidance.2 Second

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921
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Bryce Evans

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 6 Church and state The key to Ireland is the Church, its pontiffs, the Nuncio, MacRory and McQuaid and I think we should bother less about relations, good or bad, with the Government and more with relations with the Catholic Church. John Betjeman, 21 March 1943 Subsidiary function The exercise of collective responsibility to overcome material shortages infused political, economic and social debate during the Emergency. It also came to affect many aspects of everyday life: Irish people were not used to queuing, yet

in Ireland during the Second World War