Brett Bowles

playwright with only the vaguest knowledge of the cinema industry into France’s only fully independent filmmaker. In addition to serving as writer, producer and director, Pagnol built and ran his own studio and development laboratory in Marseilles, even acquiring two cinemas that served as outlets for his work. In an industry plagued by seemingly incurable fiscal and administrative problems and threatened by a rising tide of

in Marcel Pagnol
A history of cinema exhibition in Britain since 1896
Author: Stuart Hanson

The exhibition of films has developed from a lowly fairground attraction in the 1890s to the multi-million pound industry of today. This book charts the development of cinema exhibition and cinema-going in Britain from the first public film screening in February 1896 through to the opening of 30-screen 'megaplexes'. It recounts the beginnings of cinema and in particular its rapid development, by the eve of the Great War, as the pre-eminent mass entertainment. The book considers developments of cinema as an independent entertainment, the positioning of cinemas within the burgeoning metropolitan spaces, the associated search for artistic respectability, the coming of sound and a large-scale audience. The period from 1913 to 1930 was one in which the cinema industry underwent dramatic restructuring, new chains, and when Hollywood substantially increased its presence in British cinemas. Cinema-going is then critically analysed in the context of two powerful myths; the 'Golden Age' and the 'universal audience'. The book also considers the state of cinema exhibition in Britain in the post-war period, and the terminal decline of cinema-going from the 1960s until 1984. It looks at the development of the multiplex in the United States from the 1960s and examines the importance of the shopping mall and the suburb as the main focus for these cinema developments. Finally, the book discusses the extent to which the multiplex 'experience' accounts for the increase in overall attendance; and how developments in the marketing of films have run in tandem with developments in the cinema.

Stuart Hanson

features of the British cinema industry that resonate to this day. In 1913 the cinema industry established the British Board of Film Censors in response to concerted criticism of the cinema’s influence on public taste. The First World War and the associated conflicts in Europe saw the hegemony of US films established and consolidated in the post-war period through the establishment of the vertically integrated Hollywood studio

in From silent screen to multi-screen
Stuart Hanson

, including roadshows and British Film Weeks, the cinema industry, according to Howkins, thought of cinema ‘merely as an outlet for their latest product. They do not want to engage with the public who may, if the circumstances are right, go to the cinema and form an audience.’ 39 With regard to the exhibition sector the prevailing view was that, in Howkins’ words, it was both ‘fragmented and hapless’. 40 The Association of Independent Producers argued

in From silent screen to multi-screen
Stuart Hanson

new cinemas, that patterns of distribution would have to be radically changed. The poor state of the British cinema industry had meant that releases for many Hollywood films were held back for up to six months, since there was little opportunity for distributors to make a good profit on their investment in prints and advertising. Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), was unambiguous in

in From silent screen to multi-screen
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The postwar child in films
Philip Gillett

trends are notoriously difficult to chart with any accuracy, but the arrival of rock and roll marked the point when tensions between the home-centred and youth-centred models became explicit. The change can be appreciated by comparing Pearl Jephcott’s Rising Twenty, a study of a working-class girls published in 1948, with autobiographies of people who were working-class teenagers in the 1960s. 9 Since its inception, the cinema

in The British working class in postwar film
Abstract only
Carrie Tarr

marierait un sujet français avec une distribution internationale et un héros américain, un genre qu’on pourrait baptiser “mid-Atlantique”‘ 2 (Braudau 1987 ). Un homme amoureux is of particular interest in Kurys’ œuvre as a self-reflexive film which, in addition to its significance as a modern romance, tackles, albeit obliquely and ambivalently, the position of women within the cinema industry. Its charting of the emergence

in Diane Kurys
Abstract only
Author: Brett Bowles

One of the first commentators to attempt a balanced reassessment of Pagnol was Cahiers du cinéma founder André Bazin, who in his 1959 classic Qu'est-ce que le cinema? devoted a chapter to the filmmaker as part of an extended reflection on the links between theatre and cinema. Bazin broke new ground by rejecting the longstanding tendency to dismiss Pagnol's work as the cinematic recycling of theatrical convention and by recognising the value of subordinating image to speech. This book offers the first comprehensive, scrupulously documented, and unapologetically critical reading of Pagnol's cinema. It highlights his singular contribution to classic French film as an auteur and businessman while at the same time evaluating the larger cultural and aesthetic stakes of his movies. Rather than adopting a strictly chronological approach, the book traces the emergence of Pagnol's signature style in theatre and presents an epilogue that surveys the afterlife of his work in France since the mid-1970s. It discusses the definitive opening up of Pagnol's theatrically inspired cinema and his maturation from dramatic author into bona fide screen director. While Pagnol battled to defend and perfect his signature brand of cinématurgie, he simultaneously pursued an alternative production model that rejected both theatrical convention and contemporary film industry practice by shooting feature-length pictures on site in the Provençal countryside. The success of Pagnol's business model was unmatched in 1930s French cinema, offering industry insiders and the general public welcome proof that their nation could not only defend its unique cultural identity against Americanisation.

Working-class tastes in Derby
Robert James

material in Derby is scanty. There are few records that tell us of the attitudes and values of those responsible for providing reading material to the town’s citizens. Information on cinema provision is more abundant. We can, therefore, gain a sense of how valued working-class consumers were for the town’s cinema industry. Not surprisingly, the owners and managers of Derby’s cinemas were keen to foster a close relationship with their patrons. The owners of the Cosmo cinema, Mr and Mrs France, for example, distributed sticks of rock and an orange to children in the

in Popular culture and working-class taste in Britain, 1930–39
Robert James

This chapter looks at trade attitudes towards working-class taste in 1930s Britain regarding the restrictions placed upon the working class by various government bodies. The educational role of film, its use for propaganda purposes and the need for fuller control of the industry's output are referred to on a regular basis. The types of product that attracted the ‘mass’ consumer were habitually disparaged in the publishing and cinema industries' primary trade papers, Publishers' Circular and Kinematograph Weekly respectively. Time and again, members of the publishing trade were reproved if they displayed a too-liberal attitude towards reading's social and cultural role. The cinema industry was less conservative, and, therefore, more responsive to popular taste and consumer pleasure, but the improvement ethos nonetheless existed. However, the fact that popular texts continued to be produced is evidence that many trade personnel were not as naïve as to bow to the pressure put upon them by their trade representatives.

in Popular culture and working-class taste in Britain, 1930–39