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Stuart Hanson

proportion of foreign revenues derived from cinema rentals, which used to be almost the total, now accounts for approximately a quarter. 5 Since 1985 the major source of foreign revenue has become home video, followed by cinema exhibition and television, in that order. 6 Speaking in 2004 Daniel Battsek, Executive Vice President of Buena Vista International, argued that if ‘the VCR was the saviour of cinema – the DVD is perhaps

in From silent screen to multi-screen
A history of cinema exhibition in Britain since 1896
Author: Stuart Hanson

The exhibition of films has developed from a lowly fairground attraction in the 1890s to the multi-million pound industry of today. This book charts the development of cinema exhibition and cinema-going in Britain from the first public film screening in February 1896 through to the opening of 30-screen 'megaplexes'. It recounts the beginnings of cinema and in particular its rapid development, by the eve of the Great War, as the pre-eminent mass entertainment. The book considers developments of cinema as an independent entertainment, the positioning of cinemas within the burgeoning metropolitan spaces, the associated search for artistic respectability, the coming of sound and a large-scale audience. The period from 1913 to 1930 was one in which the cinema industry underwent dramatic restructuring, new chains, and when Hollywood substantially increased its presence in British cinemas. Cinema-going is then critically analysed in the context of two powerful myths; the 'Golden Age' and the 'universal audience'. The book also considers the state of cinema exhibition in Britain in the post-war period, and the terminal decline of cinema-going from the 1960s until 1984. It looks at the development of the multiplex in the United States from the 1960s and examines the importance of the shopping mall and the suburb as the main focus for these cinema developments. Finally, the book discusses the extent to which the multiplex 'experience' accounts for the increase in overall attendance; and how developments in the marketing of films have run in tandem with developments in the cinema.

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Stuart Hanson

This book charts the development of cinema exhibition and cinema-going in Britain from the first public film screening – the Lumière Brothers’ showing of their Cinématographe show at London’s Regent Street Polytechnic in February 1896 – through to the opening of 30-screen ‘megaplexes’ such as Birmingham’s Star City. In 1896 there were no permanent buildings dedicated to the showing of moving pictures

in From silent screen to multi-screen
Stuart Hanson

the proprietors of the ‘penny gaffs’, and help establish the cinema exhibition industry as a legitimate and responsible one. Walter Reynolds, of the LCC and an advocate of legislation, told a trade paper in 1909 that it was ‘not the desire of the London County Council to harm the legitimate business of the ‘living picture man’, but it was their desire to protect the public from danger.’ 55 The 1909 Act

in From silent screen to multi-screen
The utility dream palace
Author: Richard Farmer

The utility dream palace is a cultural history of cinemagoing and the cinema exhibition industry in Britain during the Second World War, a period of massive audiences in which vast swathes of the British population went to the pictures on a regular basis. Yet for all that wartime films have received a great deal of academic attention, and have been discussed in terms of the escapist pleasures they offered, the experiential pleasures offered by the cinemas in which such films were watched were inextricably connected to the places and times in which they operated. British cinemas – and the people who worked in, owned and visited them – were acutely sensitive to their spatial and temporal locations, unable to escape the war and intimately bound up in and contributing to the public’s experience of it. Combining oral history, extensive archival research, and a wealth of material gathered from contemporary trade papers, fan magazines and newspapers, this book is the first to provide a comprehensive analysis of both the cinema’s position in wartime society, and the impact that the war had on the cinema as a social practice. Dealing with subjects as diverse as the blackout, the blitz, evacuation, advertising, staffing and conscription, Entertainments Tax, showmanship and clothes rationing, The utility dream palace asserts that the cinema was, for many people, a central feature of wartime life, and argues that the history of British cinemas and cinemagoing between 1939 and 1945 is, in many ways, the history of wartime Britain.

Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain explores the relationship between classic American films about juvenile delinquency and British popular youth culture in the mid-twentieth century. The book examines the censorship, publicity and fandom surrounding such Hollywood films as The Wild One, Blackboard Jungle, Rebel Without a Cause, Rock Around the Clock and Jailhouse Rock alongside such British films as The Blue Lamp, Spare the Rod and Serious Charge. Intersecting with star studies and social and cultural history, this is the first book to re-vision the stardom surrounding three extraordinarily influential Hollywood stars: Marlon Brando, James Dean and Elvis Presley. By looking specifically at the meanings of these American stars to British fans, this analysis provides a logical and sustained narrative that explains how and why these Hollywood images fed into, and disrupted, British cultural life. Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain is based upon a wide range of sources including censorship records, both mainstream and trade newspapers and periodicals, archival accounts and memoirs, as well as the films themselves. The book is a timely intervention of film culture and focuses on key questions about screen violence and censorship, masculinity and transnational stardom, method acting and performance, Americanisation and popular post-war British culture. The book is essential reading for researchers, academics and students of film and social and cultural history, alongside general readers interested in the links between the media and popular youth culture in the 1950s.

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Richard Farmer

, national and personal levels: cinemas within cities varied widely and as a consequence offered similarly varied experiences; clear contrasts could be drawn between venues in different regions (especially so between urban and rural halls); and cinemagoers made use of particular venues at different times – the flea-pit might suffice during the week, but a super might be more appropriate for the weekend or on a special occasion. What’s more, the power exercised by local laws and local licensing authorities and watch committees meant that cinema exhibition was shaped by the

in Cinemas and cinemagoing in wartime Britain, 1939–45
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Andrew Roberts

, Christine ( 2000 ), British Cinema in the Fifties: Gender, Genre and the ‘New Look’ , London : Routledge . Hanson , Stuart ( 2007 ), From Silent Screen to Multi-Screen: A History of Cinema Exhibition in Britain Since 1896 , Manchester : Manchester University Press . Harper , Sue and Porter , Vincent ( 2003 ), British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference , Oxford : Oxford University Press . Hedling , Erik ( 2003 ), ‘ Lindsay Anderson: “Sequence” and the Rise of Auteurism in 1950s Britain ’, in MacKillop , Ian and

in Idols of the Odeons
Stuart Hanson

– Gaumont, Associated British Cinemas (ABC) and Odeon. They would come increasingly to control cinema exhibition right through until the advent of the multiplex in 1985. Oscar Deutsch had plans to rapidly expand his chain of Odeon cinemas. However, his empire was only in its infancy when the other two major circuits in Britain, John Maxwell’s ABC and Isidore Ostrer’s Gaumont had already established themselves. There were also

in From silent screen to multi-screen
Stuart Hanson

many in the industry, particularly the exhibition sector, this appeared realistic. The Eady levy was a case in point, since the decline in admissions during its entire existence had meant that the sums raised for production reduced accordingly. The White Paper had argued that the Eady levy constituted ‘an unreasonable burden upon the cinema exhibition industry’, for which exhibitors felt vindicated. 59 Many in the film industry, however, were of

in From silent screen to multi-screen